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The author reviews the relationship of meningeal worm (Parelapostrongylus tenuis) and its usual host, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Important alterations in the environment in the past 100 years have greatly expanded the northern range of white-tailed deer and brought host and parasite into contact with other native cervids such as moose (Alces americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and woodland caribou (Rangfier tarandus) in which meningeal worm is highly pathogenic. There is evidence the parasite is spreading westward with deer in the aspen-parklands of Canada. Meningeal worm can apparently have considerable impact on moose populations in endemic areas. Possibly the existence of clinical disease in moose in an area should be regarded as evidence of a much more widespread disease problem which may have eventually a serious impact on the population.
Field observations of 36 white-tailed bucks with malformed antlers suggested a cause-effect relationship between rear leg injury and antler malformation. Experimental procedures involving six bucks indicated that contralateral antler malformation can be produced by amputation of a rear leg.
The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica was recovered from 58 percent of 82 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), 47 percent of 103 Uganda kob (Adenota (Kobus) kob), and 47 percent of 47 Jackson's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni) examined in the West Acholi District of Uganda in 1965–67. None of 22 oribi (Ourebia ourebi) was infected. There was no significant difference in prevalence between males and females or between host age groups except in Jackson's hartebeest. In this host the prevalence was higher in older animals.
In 5 percent of the infected hartebeest, 17 percent of the infected kob, and 69 percent of the infected buffalo, flukes were recovered only from the gall bladder. The importance of examining the gall bladder in addition to the bile ducts to detect F. gigantica is emphasized.
One of two gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) with typical skin lesions attributable to the squirrel fibroma virus also had generalized disease involving fibromatous reactions in the lung, liver, kidney, lymph node; and focal adenomatoid changes in the lung.
Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from 6 of 11 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in southwest and northcentral New Mexico and from 12 of 15 mule deer in north-central Colorado. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported isolation of trypanosomes from this species.
During the spring and summer months of 1964 more than 95% of a population of brush rabbits (Sylrilagus bachmani) became infected with Californian myxoma virus. The characteristics of the epizootic and its effect on this species reinforce the assumption that the brush rabbit is an endemic reservoir of the Californian myxoma virus.
During January and February, 1971, 41 carcasses of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana Ord), killed by vehicles, starvation and predators in southeastern Alberta, were examined. Livers of four does contained white to yellow lesions beneath Glisson's capsule and within the hepatic parenchyma. Histopathologic examination revealed numerous ova of Capillaria hepatica (Bancroft 1893). Ova were surrounded by granulomatous reactions characterized by collagenous fibers and fibrous tissue; many were fragmented and contained calcium and iron salts.No adults were found. Widespread granulomatous reactions and mineralized, fragmented ova suggested that ova were non-viable and that pronghorn antelope are accidental and unsuitable hosts. This is the first published record of C. hepatica in pronghorn antelope specifically, and in North American ruminants, generally.
In a 4 year period, 77 zoo animals were brought to our diagnostic laboratory. Twenty-six of the 77 animals had diagnostic lesions. Of the diseases of primates, Herpes simplex encephalitis, pyrrolidine alkaloid poisoning and osteodystrophia fibrosa were prominent. Hydatidcsis, trypanosomiasis and myopathies were significant diseases in wild ruminants. Rabies was diagnosed in a lynx. The significance of these diseases to public health and epidemiology, is discussed.
Rabies was confirmed by specific laboratory tests in an Eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) which was shot in San Leandro, Alameda County, California, in August, 1971. The rabid animal had displayed aggressive, furious behavior. The one person who had been exposed, during an unprovoked attack, subsequently underwent antirabies treatment. Except in aberrant, isolated cases, such as described herein, rabies is only rarely diagnosed in rodents in the United States. Antirabies treatment for rodent bites is seldom justified, unless rabies has been demonstrated by reliable laboratory tests.
Leptospirosis in man and animals has been studied in Denmark since 1934. Strains of the following ten serotypes have been isolated: icteroluienwrrhagiae, poi, canicola, bellum, bratislava, pomono, grippotyphosa, sejroe, saxkoebing, and bataviae. Twenty-eight of the 44 species of wild land mammals living in Denmark have been examined culturally. Leptospires of eight serotypes were isolated from 14 species. Leptospires were demonstrated microscopically in the urine and/or kidneys of 31 bats belonging to four species. These leptospires could not be cultured in vitro or transmitted to animals other than bats. Serological evidence of present or past leptospirosis was found in four species of Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Ungulata not examined culturally.
Our findings indicate that the following species are maintaining hosts for leptospires of identified serotypes in Denmark: Sorex araneus (poi), Erinaceus europaeus (bratislava), Microtus arvalis (grippotyphosa), Rattus norvegicus (icterohaemorrhagiae), Mus musculus (sejroe), Apodemus agrarius (pomona), and Apodemus flavicollis (saxkoebing). Mus musculus is probably also a maintenance host for leptospires of the ballum serotype. Three bat species, Myotis daubentonii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, and Nyctalus noctula, with a high carrier rate (15–20%), may be maintenance hosts for unknown serotypes of a unique group of leptospires. Bataviae and canicola leptospires have not yet been isolated from wild animals in Denmark.
The significance of leptospirosis in wild mammals for the epidemiology of leptospirosis in man and domestic animals is discussed.
Young peafowl (Pavo cristatits), when tested for susceptibility to histomoni-asis by feeding embryonated eggs of Heterakis gallinarum carrying Histomonas meleagridis, were almost as susceptible to the disease as young Beltsville Small White turkeys. The disease developed more slowly, but, by 14 days after inoculation morbidity was 100% and 84% died. The young peafowl is so much more susceptible to histomoniasis than either chickens or pheasants that it should never be permitted to mingle with these birds, except where earthworms, the means of transmission of Heterakis, are absent. However, the young peafowl is unimportant in transmitting Histomonas meleagridis because the cecal worm rarely completes its life cycle in a young bird of this species when histomoniasis is present.
“Mucocytes” were found in the white tracts of the brain of a llama (Lama glama) which had clinical signs of central nervous derangement. A morphologic and histochemical comparison with other cerebral organic and inorganic deposits is given.
Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Colwnha livia (Gmelin) 95% — Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% — S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura Linnaeus) 24% — C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichum sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% — C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida auritu Temminck) 16% — C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) — C. guilliermondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% — C. albicans and Geotrichum sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.
Unprecedented opportunities for broadly-based wildlife disease research exist in Africa but they are not fully utilized. At the same time there are urgent economic and other reasons for increased research all over Africa into the ecological inter-relationships between wildlife, livestock, and man in the widest sense. Research needs and priorities for wildlife disease investigations in Africa are described. They differ, however, in accordance with local conditions and levels of development. The principles which govern wildlife diseases are in many respects better understood in non-African countries and species. This warrants increased international engagement of research workers and institutes specialized in wildlife disease research, in multilateral or bilateral assistance programmes aimed at the control of livestock disease cr zoonoses in Africa; also in programmes designed to improve management and utilization of African wildlife.
A 23-year-old captive male jungle cat (Felis chaus) was euthanatized because of declining health and advanced age. The following neoplasms were identified at necropsy: adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, adenocarcinoma of the stomach, Sertoli cell tumor, and adenoma of the kidney.
In a survey of 77 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, 51.9 percent were infected sub-durally with the meningeal worm (Parelaphostronnyliis tenuis Pryadko and Boev, 1971) (=Pneumostronaylus tenuis Dougherty, 1945). The occurrence of this parasite in Oklahoma establishes a new western range for the meningeal worm in this host.
A fatal diffuse granulomatous pneumonia and focal necrotizing hepatitis were found at necropsy of three 6-month old caimans. Centers of the widely disseminated, discrete lesions in the lungs had a branching fungus with septate hyphae, chlamydospores, and elliptical and cigar-shaped conidia. On culture the fungal organism was identified as Cephalosporium sp. Characteristics of the genus are discussed.