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Lycalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842), commonly called the hoary fox, is Brazil's smallest canid. It has a slender body and limbs and a small skull composed of relative fragile bones. Its size and skull characteristics combined with its peculiar dentition make it more suitable for an insectivorous diet rather than one of large vertebrates. L. vetulus is endemic to Brazil and occurs primarily in the south-central cerrados at low elevations. There is some evidence to indicate its presence in Bolivia. L. vetulus is widespread and abundant in Brazil and presently there are no known threats that would result in declines in its occurrence in the core area of its distribution.