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Chinchilla chinchilla (Lichtenstein, 1830), a hystricomorph rodent of the family Chinchillidae, is a highland species that inhabits the Andean foothills of northern Chile and southern Bolivia, specifically the Antofagasta and Atacama regions in Chile and Potosí in Bolivia, at elevations of 3,500–5,000 m. It has a silky-soft pelage of extremely dense and long fur, the color of which is bluish, pearl, or brownish gray on the dorsum. The furry tail is covered with coarse hairs on the dorsal surface. C. chinchilla is distinguished from Lagidium and Lagotomus by its small size and differs from C. lanigera in its smaller rounded ears and a shorter tail. Although new populations were found recently, this species is considered “Critically Endangered” requiring continued protection by law and further research of its genetics and ecology.