Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact firstname.lastname@example.org with any questions.
The contiguous United States population of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr) is listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. However, the historic distribution of lynx in the Northeast is poorly understood. We used museum records, bibliographic records, and interviews to reconstruct the past distribution of lynx in Maine, which is at the current southern limit of the species' distribution in the eastern United States. We found a total of 118 records, representing at least 509 lynx in Maine. Lynx were observed throughout Maine, 1833–1912, with the exception of coastal areas. After 1913, lynx were most common in the forests of western and northern Maine, and absent to rare along the coast, but had not returned to southern Maine by 1999. Thirty-nine kittens representing at least 21 litters were distributed throughout northern and western Maine, 1864–1999. Populations apparently fluctuated, and in some years 200–300 lynx were harvested in Maine. Prior to the 1900s, lynx were much more widely distributed in the Northeast, ranging from Pennsylvania north into Quebec. Because Canada lynx have had a long presence in northern New England, and at times were relatively common, this species merits serious consideration in conservation planning in this region.
Seven bat species have been recorded in Nova Scotia, but little information is available on their relative abundance, ecology, and migratory patterns. In the summer of 2001 we used echolocation and trapping surveys at Kejimkujik National Park, Brier Island and Bon Portage Island to help fill this information gap. Our results suggest that significant populations of Myotis septentrionalis, M. lucifugus and Pipistrellus subflavus occur in the province. Although we note the first breeding record of the red bat (Lasiurus borealis) in Atlantic Canada, survey results suggest this species is probably rare and that previous records were probably extralimital. Fewer than five echolocation sequences were attributable to each of hoary bat (L. cinereus) and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) suggesting that Nova Scotia is at, or beyond, the northern fringe of the range of these species. We recorded three or fewer echolocation sequences of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), however, further work should be done in more human-populated areas to confirm the distributional range of this species. At Kejimkujik National Park, we captured Myotis septentrionalis (n = 26), M. lucifugus (n = 17), and Pipistrellus subflavus (n = 3). Despite lower capture success of P. subflavus, echolocation surveys suggest that this species is locally abundant. These records may represent the most northerly breeding population of this species and is the first noted, and maybe only, breeding population of this species in Canada. Poor trapping success for this species is likely the result of its foraging behaviour (i.e., flying high over open areas). On Brier Island we captured only two M. lucifugus and no echolocation sequences were identified as P. subflavus. The magnitude of all species activity at the still water site on Brier Island was one-third the average magnitude of activity at still water sites at Kejimkujik National Park. We captured and/or recorded M. septentrionalis only along forested trails, P. subflavus only over water, and M. lucifugus at all site-types. The overall nightly activity pattern of M. lucifugus was characteristic of the activity pattern of Myotis spp. recorded in other areas, with a peak in activity just after sunset followed by a progressive decline in activity through the remainder of the night. However, P. subflavus activity was more constant through the night.
The spotfin killifish, Fundulus luciae, occurs in salt and brackish marshes of the east coast of the United States from Georgia to Massachusetts. The purpose of this study was to provide additional information on the distribution and habitat preferences of spotfin killifish in the lower Hudson River Estuary, where prior to 2000, this species had not been reported. The primary study site was Piermont Marsh, Rockland County, NY. Additional collection sites included Ralph Creek, Brooklyn, NY; Saw Mill Creek, Staten Island, NY; and Lincoln Park, Jersey City, NJ. Twenty-five spotfin killifish were collected at Piermont Marsh and Ralph Creek during 2001. All specimens were collected from the upper intertidal zone, in accordance with the reported habitat preferences and life history of this species. Samples from previous studies in northeastern U.S. brackish/salt marshes were examined, and spotfin killifish were identified from samples collected at Branford, CT in 1999; Milford, CT in 2000; and Larchmont, NY in 1976. These findings indicate that spotfin killifish may not necessarily be rare; however, their cryptic lifestyle and preference for high intertidal brackish/salt marsh habitat has often precluded detailed assessments of their life history and geographic distribution.
While sodium (Na) is likely the element sought at mineral licks, little is known regarding the influence of other minerals [e.g., sulfur, (S); calcium, (Ca); magnesium, (Mg)] in attracting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To determine whether deer display a preference for minerals when visiting licks, we monitored visitation rates with remote-triggered cameras. We recorded a total of 620 deer-visits to licks (i.e., natural seep, salt, mineral mix) in southern Indiana between April and September of 1999. Females preferred mineral licks in the spring and salt licks in the summer. Males preferred salt licks in the summer. In areas where mineral concentration of forage is below dietary requirements, the presence of artificial licks may ameliorate potential negative impact of mineral demand on antlerogenesis and lactation.
The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was observed occupying fiddler crab burrows (Uca pugnax) at low tide in a Spartina salt marsh at Sherwood Island, Westport, Connecticut. Forty-seven percent (48/103) of the fiddler crab burrows censused were occupied by crabs. Of those, 81% held fiddler crabs while the remainder held Asian crabs. Fiddler crabs and Asian crabs were never found in the same burrow. Unlike the Asian crab, fiddler crabs preferred areas of the “marsh edge” where rocks and small stones were not present. Hemigrapsus sanguineus, which can be found under the shelter of rocks, shells, and other debris on tidal flats along the fringes of the marsh, probably searches the marsh edge as the tide recedes for unused burrows to occupy. Field caging experiments used to investigate possible competitive interactions between these two species indicated that the presence of the Asian crab had no effect on burrow utilization by the fiddler crab. It is unlikely that patterns of habitat use by the east coast salt marsh fiddler crab, Uca pugnax, will be significantly affected by the recent introduction of the Asian crab, H. sanguineus, to this area.
We measured infection rates of a putative parasitic castrating ciliate, in a population of the obligately parthenogenetic mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer. Eleven percent of females sampled contained ciliates. All infected females oviposited ciliates when their abdomen contacted the water surface during oviposition trials. Furthermore, none of these females possessed eggs, yet all females contained gonadal tissue remnants within their abdomens, suggesting that ciliates were directly consuming gonadal tissue.
The nesting behavior of Crabro monticola was studied at seven localities in upstate New York and northwestern Pennsylvania over seven years. More than 100 nests were observed, excavated, measured, and drawn. Contents were removed from the cells, analyzed, weighed, and identified. All nests were excavated in sandy soil near woodland in late spring-early summer. Prey were carried to the nests in flight mainly during the morning and, less so, late afternoon. A total of 11 families and 61 species of adult Diptera were preyed upon. Males of Hybomitra lasiophthalma (Tabanidae) were predominant prey at S Auburn, NY. Males of Thereva frontalis (Therevidae) were prevalent in cells at Chittenango and Colonie, NY. Individual burrows varied in length, but mean burrow length was similar at all localities except Selkirk Shores State Park and Colonie, NY. Mean cell depth was significantly different between most sites. Prey stored for next generation male wasps weighed, on average, only half as much as provisions stored for future female wasps. Female cells were located, on average, slightly deeper in the soil than male cells except at Chittenango in 1970. Individual flies varied considerably in size and weight at all localities. Mean number of prey per cell at S Auburn was significantly fewer than at Chittenango. Cell size correlated positively with aggregate prey weight. Flies bearing wasps' eggs were nearly always positioned head in and ventral side up. Mortality by mold, scavenging ants, and cleptoparasitic miltogrammine flies was negligible.
Three nests of Crabro advena from near Chittenango, Madison County, NY were excavated, examined, measured, and drawn. The cell contents were taken to a laboratory, analyzed, weighed, and sent out for identification. Adult Tachinidae comprised the major prey type captured by the wasps. This study further extends the ecological and behavioral variation of C. advena. Information on nesting season, soil type, number of cells per nest, cell depth, number of prey per fully provisioned cell, and prey type from this and five other upstate New York studies are compared.
One female Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) was discovered singing in July 1993, and another in May 1996 among a color-banded breeding population under investigation. The first female's song structurally resembled the typical male Hooded Warbler mixed-mode song in duration, frequency range, and number of syllables, although it had an atypical raspy quality. Males responded similarly to playbacks of the female song and a male song from the same population. We suggest that age and high breeding density may be explanatory factors for this rare behavior.
A survey of invertebrates inhabiting salt marsh pools in southern Maine revealed the presence of larval Goeldichironomus devineyae, a midge fly species of the family Chironomidae. The larvae were collected from sediments in eight pools with salinities of 26–39‰ and reared to adults for species verification. This represents a considerable range extension for the species that was previously recorded from the southeastern coast of the United States.