Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact email@example.com with any questions.
We initiated an inventory and a field test of a protocol that could be used for monitoring marsh birds at the Cape Cod National Seashore in eastern Massachusetts during 1999 and 2000, as part of a more comprehensive national effort. Using cassette tapes during call broadcast surveys, we visited a total of 78 survey points at freshwater, brackish, and salt marsh sites three times on the ground or in canoes during the breeding season (May–June), fall migration (September to November), and twice during winter (December–January). Observer bias on our marsh bird surveys appeared negligible. Although both auditory and visual detection of most species was low (mean < 0.3 birds per replicate-survey point), we confirmed the presence of seven marsh species, including American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), American Coot (Fulica americana), King Rail (Rallus elegans), Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), Sora (Porzana carolina), and Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola). We suspected breeding of Least Bitterns and Soras at Great Pond in Provincetown, and for Virginia Rails at Hatches Harbor, Provincetown. The most frequently detected species were Soras, Pied-billed Grebes, and Virginia Rails. We recommend using call broadcast surveys for these cryptic species to enhance their probabilities of detection.
The larger-bodied burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis, competes with the smaller N. defodiens for valued, protein-rich, carrion resources. We tested four hypotheses of this competitive relationship. We found support for the hypotheses that N. defodiens locates fresh carcasses more quickly than N. orbicollis and that carcasses placed under the leaf litter are more difficult for Nicrophorus to locate than carcasses placed above the leaf litter. By shifting the photocycle of N. defodienswe were able to manipulate this normally crepuscular species into beginning its active period 3 h later, during the active period of the nocturnal N. orbicollis. This clock-shift eliminates the 3 h head start that N. defodiens typically experiences in the field. We did not find support for the hypothesis that clock-shifted N. defodiens would suffer in competition compared to non-clock-shifted beetles. We did find support for the hypothesis that the presence of N. defodiens on a carcass provides clues to searching N. orbicollis. We suggest that the presence of efficient carrion searchers such as N. defodiens may significantly increase the numbers and success of the Nicrophorus guild.
Differences in lichen presence and abundance in natural and managed coniferous forests of Nova Scotia were studied in thirty stands categorized as 1) harvested and thinned, 2) harvested and unthinned, and 3) naturally disturbed. The frequency of cover of thirty-four lichen taxa was assessed and analysed to examine the effects of forest management history. Nine taxa had significantly greater abundance and two taxa only occurred in old growth forests compared to younger stages. Twenty taxa had significantly greater abundance and five taxa only occurred in natural forests compared to managed forests. The abundance and habitat of each taxon is discussed. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the forest structural features that best explained the abundance of each lichen taxon. Tree age, remnant trees, crown closure, tree volume, and tree spacing were structural features that most consistently influenced lichen abundance.
The marine waters of New York State (excluding the Hudson River) are home to a large and diverse ichthyofauna that includes pelagics, migratory coastal fishes, resident species, anadromous and catadromous fishes, euryhaline-estuarine forms, and freshwater and deep-ocean strays. This diversity is attributable, in part, to the broad variety of habitats composing New York's marine waters. Also, although New York is located near the center of the Virginian biogeographic province, seasonal representatives of the Acadian and Carolinian provinces increase the breadth of its ichthyofauna. We record 338 fishes (114 families) reported from these waters, with annotations where warranted. Rare and unusual specimens are documented where possible with museum and literature citations.
We have described the occurrence of 46 phytoplankton species that are potentially toxic to humans, or harmful to marine life, or both. The area of interest is southeastern Nova Scotia to the Hudson River (NY) estuary. The species are distributed across a number of taxonomic classes, and represent a conservative estimate of the real total, which must remain speculative until the biodiversity of phytoplankton in the area is known. Despite the high number of potential harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, rather few are known to cause problems.