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Habenaria pseudoglaucophylla J. A. N. Batista, R. C. Mota & N. Abreu (Orchidaceae, Orchideae, Habenariinae), a new species from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described and illustrated. The species was first collected in 1970, but previously misidentified as H. glaucophylla Barbosa Rodrigues and H. umbraticola Barbosa Rodrigues. Distinctive features of the new species are the rosulate leaves, the deeply tripartite lip, the oblong posterior petal lobe with a truncate apex, and the short, tooth-like anterior petal lobe. The new species occurs in campo rupestre vegetation, usually associated with quartzite outcrops.
As part of a revision of the genus, Agropyron deweyi Á. Löve (Poaceae, Triticeae) is neotypified, because its holotype grown from seed material from Turkey was lost. The neotype is selected from one of two specimens bearing the same wild-origin seed details as the original type, which differ in the date of their collection.
As part of a taxonomic revision of the genus Roegneria K. Koch (Poaceae, Triticeae), a neotype is designated for R. caucasica K. Koch, the type of the generic name, because the entire type collection of Koch's specimens in Berlin (B) was destroyed during World War II.
Pandanus sermolliana Callmander & Buerki (Pandanaceae) is described from humid forests in the Galoka mountain chain in northwestern Madagascar. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other members of the genus it most closely resembles, P. insuetus Huynh and P. perrieri Martelli, by several morphological characters, including drupes that are incompletely fused, with each of the dome-like carpels separated from the base of the pileus, and stigmas that are subvertical or rarely subhorizontal, slightly spinescent, and raised on an incompletely united base. This distinctive species is rare and is classified as Critically Endangered based on IUCN Red List criteria.
A new species of Malaxis Solander ex Swartz (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Malaxideae), M. medinae Carnevali & Noguera Savelli, from Trujillo State in Andean Venezuela is proposed herein. The new taxon is related to the widespread M. soulei L. O. Williams, a species found from the southwestern United States southward into Panama. The plants, however, are smaller (to only 12.7 cm) and have proportionally longer peduncles (to 4.5 cm) that bear fewer flowers (12 to 25 per spike) with a much more triangular labellum with parallel apical teeth (vs. convergent in M. soulei).
Twenty new species of Philodendron Schott (Araceae) from Bajo Calima, Colombia, are described as new: P. baudoense Croat & D. C. Bay, P. canicaule Croat & D. C. Bay, P. chrysocarpum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. coriaceum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. discretivenium Croat & D. C. Bay, P. dryanderae Croat & D. C. Bay, P. furcatum Croat, P. heterocraspedon Croat & D. C. Bay, P. hiberisiccans Croat & D. C. Bay, P. monsalveae Croat & D. C. Bay, P. ninoanum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. oblanceolatum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. polliciforme Croat & D. C. Bay, P. rhodospathiphyllum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. rubromaculatum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. striatum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. suberosum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. tricostatum Croat & D. C. Bay, P. trojitense Croat & D. C. Bay, and P. venulosum Croat & D. C. Bay.
Two new species, Hesperis anatolica A. Duran and H. hamzaoglui A. Duran (Brassicaceae), are described and illustrated from Anatolia, Turkey. Hesperis anatolica grows in serpentine pebbly slopes and open pine forest and scrub in Pozantı and Karsantı (Adana province). It is closely related to H. persica Boissier, an endemic confined to South Anatolia. Hesperis hamzaoglui grows in granitic rocky sites in a forest-steppe ecotone from Zorkun Yayla (Osmaniye province). It is closely related to H. podocarpa Boissier, an endemic confined to the Amanos Mountains. Diagnostic morphological characters are discussed, as well as the ecology, biogeography, and conservation status of both new species. In addition, the pollen characteristics and seed coat surface of H. anatolica, H. persica, H. hamzaoglui, and H. podocarpa are examined by SEM. Hesperis anatolica is diploid with a new report of the chromosome number of 2n = 12.
Draba anatolica A. Duran & Dinç, a new species of Brassicaceae collected from Kastamonu province in North Anatolia, Turkey, is described and illustrated. The species grows on rocky crevices and stony slopes in Ilgaz Mountain National Park. It is related to D. siliquosa M. Bieberstein, from which it mainly differs in its densely stellate-pubescent fruit, the 10- to 20-flowered inflorescence, the stellate-pubescent stems with five to eight leaves, the petals 4.5–5 mm long and sparsely stellate-pubescent externally, and the pubescent, 8–10 mm, fruiting pedicel. The ecology, biogeography, and conservation status of the species are discussed. Fruit and seed coat surface micromorphology of D. anatolica are examined by SEM, and the chromosome number and morphology are determined, with 2n = 16.
Commelina lukei Faden (Commelinaceae) is newly described from southeastern Kenya, also distributed in northeastern Tanzania and Madagascar. It is distinguished from C. kotschyi Hasskarl by its larger, less undulate-margined leaves, larger spathes, and different distribution and ecology; from C. imberbis Ehrenberg ex Hasskarl and C. mascarenica C. B. Clarke by its capsule shape, appendaged seeds, and consistently clasping leaf bases; and from all three species by the presence of solely acicular hairs on the adaxial lamina midrib. Commelina milne-redheadii Faden is newly described from Zambia, also in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo. It differs from C. scaposa C. B. Clarke by the presence of leaves on the flowering shoots and larger spathes; from C. hockii De Wildeman by its narrower leaves and much smaller, striped spathes; from C. welwitschii C. B. Clarke by its tuberous roots, fewer-veined spathes, and several- to many-flowered upper cincinnus; and from all three species by its blue flowers and seeds with a dorsal ridge.
Rumex aeroplaniformis Eig (Polygonaceae) is shown to be a validly published and legitimate name and is neotypified. Rumex rothschildianus Aaronsohn ex Evenari is reduced to synonymy of R. aeroplaniformis and is lectotypified.
A new species of Palicourea Aublet (Rubiaceae, Psychotrieae) is described and illustrated: P. palustris A. C. Gilman & C. M. Taylor from montane Costa Rica. This species differs from P. salicifolia Standley by its large stipules that have well-developed lobes and are persistent with age, and by its larger corollas with relatively longer lobes.
Hampeella concavifolia Hattaway & D. H. Norris (Ptychomniaceae) is described and illustrated from Queensland, Australia. It differs from H. pallens (Sande Lacoste) M. Fleischer in its teretely foliate, attenuate secondary stems; the closely imbricate, strongly concave, symmetrical leaves that have bright orange to red-brown basal cells with incrassate-porose walls; longer capsules (to 2.4 mm); and longer setae (to 14 mm). Hampeella concavifolia is distinguished from H. alaris (Dixon & Sainsbury) Sainsbury by its less differentiated alar cells, usually longer secondary stems (to 3 cm), and differences in peristome ornamentation. This new species is designated as Data Deficient (DD) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
Recent collections of Polypodiaceae in Brazil reveal a new species of Ceradenia L. E. Bishop, C. itatiaiensis Labiak & Condack, that appears to be a narrow endemic to the Itatiaia National Park. It resembles C. albidula (Baker) L. E. Bishop, but differs mainly by having setae on the laminar margins. Descriptions and illustrations are provided, as well as comments on the most closely related species.
A new species, Microtropis xizangensis Q. W. Lin & Z. X. Zhang, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to M. discolor (Wallich) Wallich ex Meisner in having 4-merous flowers and no disk, and differs from it mainly by having 1- to 3-flowered inflorescences, non-carinate petals, and rostrate capsules. The new species is determined as Vulnerable (VU) according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.
Morphological and molecular analyses of Arceuthobium aureum Hawksworth & Wiens and A. globosum Hawksworth & Wiens (Viscaceae) demonstrated that these taxa are closely related but can be distinguished based on a few morphological differences, phenology, and host ranges. Therefore, the taxa previously treated under A. aureum are recombined under A. globosum: A. globosum subsp. aureum (Hawksworth & Wiens) Mathiasen and A. globosum subsp. petersonii (Hawksworth & Wiens) Mathiasen.
Micromeria brownei var. ludens Shinners is recognized at the rank of species and transferred to Clinopodium L. Shinners distinguished variety ludens from other M. brownei (Swartz) Bentham based on its “hispid-ciliate” calyx teeth. While this character seems to be variable over the entire geographic range of C. brownei (Swartz) Kuntze, C. ludens (Shinners) A. Pool is unique in possessing narrowly ellipsoid nutlets, which are apically rostrate, supporting its recognition at the species level. The generic transfer from Micromeria Bentham to Clinopodium follows the molecular and morphological studies of Cantino and Wagstaff. Clinopodium ludens is currently known from Pinar del Río Province of Cuba, the Yucatán and Quintana Roo states of Mexico, and the Atlántida Department of Honduras.
Four new species of Gentianella Moench are described from Peru. Gentianella iberidea J. S. Pringle differs from G. graminea (Kunth) Fabris in its obtuse, non-arcuate leaves. Gentianella sagasteguii J. S. Pringle differs from similar species in its combination of linear-elliptic leaves, narrowly triangular calyx lobes, and lilac, widely campanulate to subrotate corollas with the lobes (1.1–)1.7–2× as long as the tube. Gentianella smithii J. S. Pringle differs from G. paludicola (Gilg) J. S. Pringle and G. roseolilacina (Gilg) J. S. Pringle in its perennial habit and blue corollas. Gentianella uberula J. S. Pringle differs from G. sagasteguii in its wider leaves and less deeply lobed corollas.
The preparation of the taxonomic treatment of Nama L. (Hydrophyllaceae) for the Flora Mesoamericana resulted in the discovery of a new species from Guatemala. Nama segetale Ricketson is described and illustrated.
The new genus Paneroa E. E. Schilling (Asteraceae, Eupatorieae) from the Mixteca Alta region in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, is described and illustrated, and a new combination, P. stachyofolia (B. L. Robinson) E. E. Schilling, is made. The genus is characterized by its alternate, sessile leaves, 4-ribbed phyllaries, short coroniform pappus, and clavate style appendages. Molecular phylogenetic analyses show that the genus is distinct from Ageratum L., in which the species was originally described, and is closely related to other genera including Conoclinium DC. and Fleischmannia Schultz Bipontinus. It occurs in a floristic region that is characterized by numerous endemics.
New results from phylogenetic analyses utilizing chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers agree with morphology in support of the unification of all of Rheedia L. and part of Ochrocarpos Thouars with Garcinia L. and show that species occurring in Madagascar and the Comoros fall into four separate lineages, which are designated here as informal species groups. An examination of Garcinia from these areas results in the recognition of 32 currently described species, all but one of which are endemic. The widespread African species, G. livingstonei T. Anderson, is noted for the first time to occur in Mayotte. Eleven new combinations are published here: G. ambrensis (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. anjouanensis (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. arenicola (Jumelle & H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. calcicola (Jumelle & H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. dalleizettei (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. mangorensis (R. Viguier & Humbert) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. multifida (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. parvula (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. thouvenotii (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. tsaratananensis (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers), and G. urschii (H. Perrier) P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers. Three new names, G. dauphinensis P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, G. megistophylla P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, and G. tsimatimia P. Sweeney & Z. S. Rogers, are provided for O. parvifolius Scott-Elliot, R. megaphylla H. Perrier, and R. pedicellata (Jumelle & H. Perrier) H. Perrier, respectively. Lectotypes are designated for 12 names: G. crassiflora Jumelle & H. Perrier, G. disepala Vesque, G. melleri Baker, G. polyphlebia Baker, G. verrucosa Jumelle & H. Perrier, O. ambrensis H. Perrier, O. macrophyllus O. Hoffmann, O. parvifolius, O. parvulus H. Perrier, O. tsaratananae H. Perrier, R. arenicola Jumelle & H. Perrier, and R. calcicola Jumelle & H. Perrier.
A new species of Asplenium L. (Aspleniaceae) is described and illustrated. Asplenium badinii Sylvestre & P. G. Windisch is an endemic species of the isolated forest clumps (capões) from Itacolomi State Park, from Minas Gerais, Brazil, in areas dominated by open rocky sites (campos rupestres). This environment is known for its high level of generic and specific endemism. The new species belongs to the A. salicifolium L. species group, with apical pinnae similar to lateral ones, smooth blades, and spores with echinate perispore. It is related to A. juglandifolium Lamark and A. bradeanum Handro. Diagnostic characters for A. badinii are the long basal segment on the acroscopic side of the proximal pinnae as well as the linear to linear-lanceolate scales on the stem.
During preparation of the taxonomic treatment of Elaphoglossaceae for the Flora of China, Volume 3, it was noticed that the following nomenclatural actions were necessary for the forthcoming account of Elaphoglossum Schott ex J. Smith: the new combination E. luzonicum Copeland var. mcclurei (Ching) F. G. Wang & F. W. Xing is made, and E. spongophyllum P. R. Bell ex Holttum is newly synonymized to it. In addition, E. luzonicum var. mcclurei is lectotypified, and E. sinii C. Christensen ex Wu is epitypified.
Stenogyne kauaulaensis K. R. Wood & H. Oppenheimer (Lamiaceae), a narrow endemic from Kaua‘ula, West Maui, Hawai‘i, U.S.A., is described and illustrated. The new species differs from other known species of Stenogyne Bentham by its combination of flowers raised on a common peduncle, broadly campanulate calyx with large foliaceous teeth, strongly falcate corolla, and exserted stamens. Known from approximately 15 naturally occurring individuals, S. kauaulaensis easily falls into the Critically Endangered IUCN Red List category and is successfully cultivated for conservation.
Paris stigmatosa Shu-dong Zhang (Melanthiaceae) is described and illustrated from northeastern Yunnan, China. The new species was found growing in wet habitats under bamboo thickets on Yaoshan Mountain of Qiaojia County. The new species is very similar to P. polyphylla Smith, from which it differs by having fewer subsessile leaves (four to six), 3-merous flowers, and stigmas 21–34 mm long. A key to the new species and sympatric species is given, and their similarities are discussed.
A study of the diversity of Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae) in China has revealed a distinctive new variety from Yunnan Province, China. Dioscorea bulbifera var. albotuberosa Y. F. Zhou, Z. L. Xu & Y. Y. Hang differs from D. bulbifera by its tubers white in transverse section, bulblets verruculose, and leaf texture membranaceous, papery, and crispy when dry.