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Weberbauera arequipa Al-Shehbaz & Montesinos (Brassicaceae), a new species from Peru, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from the other species of Weberbauera Gilg & Muschler by having ebracteate racemes, persistent sepals and petals, 4-seeded fruits, and a few simple trichomes restricted to the petiolar bases. It is closely related to the Bolivian W. retropila Al-Shehbaz, but differs by the lack of branched trichomes and by having glabrous fruits, smaller flowers, and persistent petals. The IUCN status of the new species is determined as Data Deficient (DD).
Physaria okanensis Al-Shehbaz & Prina (Brassicaceae), a new species from Catamarca, Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from the five other South American species of Physaria (Nuttall) A. Gray by its densely pulvinate habit and few-flowered scapes. It resembles the non-pulvinate, often non-scapose P. pygmaea O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz, but also differs by having longer petals and larger, orbicular (vs. ovoid) fruits. The IUCN status of the new species is determined as Data Deficient (DD).
A new species of Meconopsis Viguier, M. biloba L. Z. An, Shu-Yan Chen & Y. S. Lian (Papaveraceae), from Gansu Province, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is related to M. quintuplinervia Regel by several similar characters, including the basal leaf rosettes, a solitary flower borne on the scape, and the blue petals and filaments. It differs from all known Meconopsis species in China in its bilobed petals.
Two new Malagasy species of Dombeya Cavanilles subgen. Xeropetalum (Delile) K. Schumann (Malvaceae) are described. Dombeya asymmetrica Applequist is native to Mananara-Nord in northeastern Madagascar, and D. rienanensis Applequist to the Matatana River basin. Dombeya rienanensis is placed within subseries Trohy Arènes. Dombeya asymmetrica is tentatively placed within subseries Repandae Arènes; the species is distinguished by its long, narrow lanceolate leaves with asymmetrical apices.
The new combination Toxicoscordion venenosum (S. Watson) Rydberg var. gramineum (Rydberg) Brasher (Melanthiaceae) is made to accommodate this taxon in this genus at the rank of variety for the Southern Rocky Mountain Interactive Flora (SRMIF) project. Recent chromosome and DNA sequence data support segregation of Toxicoscordion Rydberg from Zigadenus Michaux s.l.
A species-level status for Sorocea sprucei (Baillon) J. F. Macbride subsp. subumbellata C. C. Berg is proposed here, recognizing the subumbellate infructescences and the sharply distinctive, previously unknown, and recently discovered staminate inflorescences and flowers.
A new genus, Neocupressus de Laubenfels, is erected for the New World cypresses (Cupressaceae) to separate them from Callitropsis Oersted, where they have recently been placed. This is based on several sharp morphological distinctions. A new hybrid nothogenus, ×Neocupropsis de Laubenfels, is also erected to accommodate hybrid species from various species of Neocupressus and Callitropsis. The new combinations are: Neocupressus arizonica (Greene) de Laubenfels, N. arizonica var. glabra (Sudworth) de Laubenfels, N. arizonica var. nevadensis (Abrams) de Laubenfels, N. arizonica var. montana (Wiggins) de Laubenfels, N. bakeri (Jepson) de Laubenfels, N. goveniana (Gordon) de Laubenfels, N. goveniana var. abramsiana (C. B. Wolf) de Laubenfels, N. goveniana var. pygmaea (Lemmon) de Laubenfels, N. guadalupensis (S. Watson) de Laubenfels, N. guadalupensis var. forbesii (Jepson) de Laubenfels, N. lusitanica (Miller) de Laubenfels, N. lusitanica var. lindleyi (Klotzsch in Endlicher) de Laubenfels, N. macnabiana (A. Murray bis) de Laubenfels, N. macrocarpa (Hartweg) de Laubenfels, N. sargentii (Jepson) de Laubenfels, ×Neocupropsis leylandii (A. B. Jackson & Dallimore) de Laubenfels, ×N. notabilis (A. F. Mitchell) de Laubenfels, and ×N. ovensii (A. F. Mitchell) de Laubenfels. A lectotype is selected for N. lusitanica var. lindleyi.
Comparative survey of morphological characters shows that Eranthemum tapingense W. W. Smith is better treated in Mackaya Harvey. Consequently, a new combination, M. tapingensis (W. W. Smith) Y. F. Deng & C. Y. Wu, is proposed, and its lectotype is designated. The species is distributed in China and Burma (Myanmar).
Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydberg, the type of Psoralidium Rydberg, is transferred to Pediomelum Rydberg requiring a new combination, Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan in tribe Psoraleeae Lowe (Fabaceae/Leguminosae). Previously published evidence on phylogenetic relationships provides a foundation for this combination, as do shared morphological traits such as persistent bracts and an elliptical fruit that falls with the calyx. A new genus, Ladeania A. N. Egan & Reveal, is described to accommodate the two remaining species previously in Psoralidium: L. juncea (Eastwood) A. N. Egan & Reveal and L. lanceolata (Pursh) A. N. Egan & Reveal, with the latter designated as the type. Ladeania is distinguished by readily deciduous bracts accompanying a calyx that does not enlarge or elongate in fruit, but flares back from the receptacle. A lectotype is designated for Psoralea floribunda Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray.
Nomenclatural changes in Monardella Bentham (Lamiaceae) are introduced to more accurately circumscribe the specific and subspecific entities in the genus in California. Examination of herbarium specimens and digital images and analysis of biogeographical data from additional fieldwork has revealed morphological continuities and discontinuities. Four new species are described: M. boydii A. C. Sanders & Elvin, M. eremicola A. C. Sanders & Elvin, M. mojavensis Elvin & A. C. Sanders, and M. sinuata Elvin & A. C. Sanders. Five new subspecies are described: M. australis Abrams subsp. jokerstii Elvin & A. C. Sanders, M. hypoleuca A. Gray subsp. intermedia A. C. Sanders & Elvin, M. linoides A. Gray subsp. sierrae Elvin & A. C. Sanders, M. sinuata subsp. nigrescens Elvin & A. C. Sanders, and M. undulata Bentham subsp. arguelloensis Elvin & A. C. Sanders. Eight new combinations and/or rank changes are proposed: M. australis subsp. cinerea (Abrams) A. C. Sanders & Elvin, M. breweri A. Gray subsp. glandulifera (I. M. Johnston) Elvin, M. breweri subsp. lanceolata (A. Gray) A. C. Sanders & Elvin, M. breweri subsp. microcephala (A. Gray) Elvin & A. C. Sanders, M. linoides subsp. anemonoides (Greene) Elvin & A. C. Sanders, M. linoides subsp. erecta (Abrams) Elvin & A. C. Sanders, M. undulata subsp. crispa (Elmer) Elvin & A. C. Sanders, and M. venosa (Torrey) A. C. Sanders & Elvin. The description of one taxon is emended: M. undulata subsp. undulata. Lectotypes are designated for M. lanceolata A. Gray and M. sanguinea Greene. We address each of these changes within informal species groupings or alliances.
Four new orchid species from Madagascar are described and illustrated. Notes on the distribution, ecology, and conservation status are provided. Bulbophyllum uroplatoides Hermans & G. A. Fischer, B. histrionicum Reichenbach f. ex G. A. Fischer & P. J. Cribb, and B. senghasii G. A. Fischer & Sieder belong to section Calamaria Schlechter, whereas B. bryophytoides G. A. Fischer & Andriantiana belongs to section Lichenophylax Schlechter. Bulbophyllum uroplatoides Hermans & G. A. Fischer is related to B. cardiobulbum Bosser, but differs in the thickened racemes, overall plant size, the shape of the sepals, petals, and lip, and coloration. Bulbophyllum histrionicum Reichenbach f. ex G. A. Fischer & P. J. Cribb was previously recognized by Reichenbach as a new species, but was never formally described. It is characterized by its large, orbicular to somewhat ovoid pseudobulbs that are green flushed with red, large, ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate leaves, red floral bracts, long sepals, narrowly triangular petals, and glabrous lip. Bulbophyllum senghasii G. A. Fischer & Sieder has orbicular, non-compressed bifoliate pseudobulbs, flowers with greenish yellow sepals that are spotted with dark brown on the outside, and an elliptic lip that is not compressed in the middle and has erose rather than long-ciliate margins and falcate rather than straight stelidia. Bulbophyllum bryophytoides G. A. Fischer & Andriantiana is a very tiny plant distinguishable from other species of section Lichenophylax by its densely long-ciliate petals and its ciliate lip that lacks a median callus and has a glabrous surface.
A new putative natural hybrid bromeliad from southernmost Brazil, Tillandsia ×baptistana Gonçalves & Azevêdo-Gonçalves (Bromeliaceae), is here described. Its habit is very similar to T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez, but the floral characteristics are intermediate between the probable parental taxa (T. recurvata (L.) L. and T. mallemontii). A key to identify this hybrid and its parents on the basis of the floral characters is also presented.
A new species, Hoya bawanglingensis S. Y. He & P. T. Li (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), is described and illustrated from Hainan, China. The morphological characters of H. bawanglingensis and the related species H. pottsii Traill are compared. Hoya bawanglingensis differs in the pubescence of its young stems, both leaf surfaces, petioles, peduncles, pedicels, outer calyx lobes, and follicles. The corolla lobes are white with purple spots, and the corona is white with a purplish center.
Brongniartia balsensis J. Jiménez Ramírez & K. Vega (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae), a new and endemic species from the Balsas Depression, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to B. guerrerensis J. Jiménez Ramírez & J. L. Contreras, but differs from it by having a greater number of leaflets and larger pedicels, bracteoles, calyx, standard, wings, and keel; there are also differences in the form of the standard, the color of the keel (green), and the possession of a lightly winged legume.
Taxonomic review is provided for taxa of Callitriche L. (Callitrichaceae) occurring in North America. One new species, C. stenoptera Lansdown, is described from Arizona in the United States, and the following names are lectotypified: C. anceps Fernald, C. drummondii Hegelmaier, C. hermaphroditica L. var. bicarpellaris (Fenley ex Jepson) H. Mason, C. longipedunculata Morong, C. marginata Torrey, C. nuttallii Torrey, C. sepulta S. Watson, and C. stenocarpa Hegelmaier.
A new name, Aristolochia wuana Zhen W. Liu & Y. F. Deng, is proposed to replace the later homonym Aristolochia macrocarpa C. Y. Wu & S. K. Wu ex D. D. Tao, not A. macrocarpa Duchartre. The species may be closely related to A. griffithii Hooker f. & Thomson ex Duchartre but differs in its retuse or rounded leaf apex (vs. acute or shortly acuminate), oblong capsule (vs. narrowly cylindrical), and the smooth upper surface of the seeds (vs. rugose).
Three new species of Salacia L. from Mesoamerica (Celastraceae, Salacioideae) are described from Panama. Salacia macrocremastra Lombardi is characterized by its very long pedicels to 50 mm, large flowers to 19 mm diam., and slightly bullate, elliptic leaves with a rounded base. Salacia mennegana J. Hedin ex Lombardi is distinguished by its buds with the calyx initially truncate and lobes that grow as the flower expands during anthesis, open inflorescences, annular disk, and ellipsoid fruits. Salacia panamensis Lombardi can be recognized by its closed calyx with lobes that are irregular in bud and that tear apart as the flower opens, and its annular-pulvinate, slightly pentagonous disk with outer margin flattened.
Two new species of Orchidaceae from the Serra do Caraça, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are described and illustrated. Bulbophyllum carassense R. C. Mota, F. Barros & Stehmann is endemic to the Serra do Caraça and is epiphytic on trees or sometimes rupicolous. It is related to B. bidentatum (Barbosa Rodrigues) Cogniaux, B. filifolium Borba & Smidt, and B. plumosum (Barbosa Rodrigues) Cogniaux, all belonging to section Xiphizusa (Reichenbach f.) Cogniaux. A table comparing diagnostic characters for B. carassense with morphologically related species is presented. The second new species is Lepanthopsis vellozicola R. C. Mota, F. Barros & Stehmann, which is also rare and endemic to this region as an epiphyte on Vellozia compacta Martius, in campos rupestres vegetation. This is the only species in Lepanthopsis (Cogniaux) Ames with the following combination of characters: the secondary stems show only two evident internodes and are subtended by two leaf sheaths with smooth margins, and the lateral sepals are completely connate. A taxonomic key to identify the Brazilian species of Lepanthopsis is presented.
In this work, we propose the new combination Hofmeisterella falcata (Linden & Reichenbach f.) Nauray & A. Galán for use in the Colombian flora. This species differs from H. eumicroscopica Reichenbach f. by its flowers with wider sepals and petals and by its column and labellum with conspicuous bristles. Consequently, the genus Hofmeisterella Reichenbach f. consists of two species and is no longer a monospecific genus. Moreover, the lectotype of Telipogon falcatus Linden & Reichenbach f. is formally designated.
Taxonomic and palynological studies on Arisaema Martius (Araceae) from the Western Ghats, India, distinguish two taxa belonging to section Tortuosa Engler. Arisaema sahyadricum S. R. Yadav, K. S. Patil & Bachulkar var. ghaticum Sardesai, S. P. Gaikwad & S. R. Yadav, a recently described variety in 2006, is treated here at the species level as A. ghaticum Punekar & Kumaran. Arisaema sivadasanii S. R. Yadav, K. S. Patil & Janarthanam, previously considered as a synonym of A. tortuosum (Wallich) Schott, is recognized here as the subspecies A. tortuosum subsp. sivadasanii (S. R. Yadav, K. S. Patil & Janarthanam) Punekar & Kumaran. Taxonomic implications are discussed and a key to the Arisaema taxa of the North Western Ghats is provided.
For the Flora of North America Project, five species are transferred to Rosulabryum J. R. Spence (Bryaceae). Two weedy European species, Bryum bornholmense Winkelmann & R. Ruthe and B. rubens Mitten, are transferred based on morphology and recent molecular results, as R. bornholmense (Winkelmann & R. Ruthe) J. R. Spence and R. rubens (Mitten) J. R. Spence. The western North American endemics B. erythroloma (Kindberg) Syed and B. gemmascens Kindberg are also transferred to Rosulabryum, as R. erythroloma (Kindberg) J. R. Spence and R. gemmascens (Kindberg) J. R. Spence. Finally, the rare eastern North American Brachymenium andersonii H. A. Crum is transferred to Rosulabryum as R. andersonii (H. A. Crum) J. R. Spence. In all, 13 species of Rosulabryum are found in North America north of Mexico. A key to the species is included.
A new species of Cryptantha Lehmann ex Fischer & C. A. Meyer (Boraginaceae), C. marioricardiana Teillier, is described. The new species is a chamaephytic shrub, a very infrequent character in the genus. This species grows in Chile, in the coastal Atacama Desert (III Region de Atacama, 28°S).
Menyanthaceae species in Australia formerly belonging to the genus Villarsia Ventenat, which morphological and molecular data have shown to be paraphyletic, are provided with new combinations in Liparophyllum Hooker f. and the novel genus Ornduffia Tippery & Les: L. capitatum (Nees ex Lehmann) Tippery & Les; L. congestiflorum (F. Mueller) Tippery & Les, lectotypified here; L. exaltatum (Solander ex Sims) Tippery & Les; L. exiguum (F. Mueller) Tippery & Les; L. lasiospermum (F. Mueller) Tippery & Les, lectotypified here; L. latifolium (Bentham) Tippery & Les; L. violifolium (F. Mueller) Tippery & Les, lectotypified here; O. albiflora (F. Mueller) Tippery & Les, lectotypified here; O. calthifolia (F. Mueller) Tippery & Les, lectotypified here; O. marchantii (Ornduff) Tippery & Les; O. parnassifolia (Labillardière) Tippery & Les; O. reniformis (R. Brown) Tippery & Les; O. submersa (Aston) Tippery & Les; and O. umbricola (Aston) Tippery & Les.
We describe and illustrate the new species Paepalanthus bonsai Trovó & Sano (Eriocaulaceae, Paepalanthoideae) from the Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This species is placed in Paepalanthus Martius subsect. Dichocladus Ruhland due to its dichotomously branched stem with rigid linear leaves. The new species is compared with the sympatric and morphologically similar species P. glaziovii Ruhland.
A distinctive new species from the Neotropics, Rinorea zygomorpha H. E. Ballard & Wahlert (Violaceae), is described and illustrated. It has several character states unique to Neotropical Rinorea Aublet, including a strongly zygomorphic corolla and single-seeded capsule, which distinguish it from other New World species. The new species is also aberrant in several respects in the family, with bifid dorsal connective appendages, stipitate ovary and fruit, and lateral attachment on the laterally compressed seed. A key is presented to separate this new species from other Neotropical members of Rinorea. An assessment of IUCN status using ArcView GIS software with georeferenced localities places the new species in the Least Concern category.