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A new species, Isoetes libanotica Musselman, Bolin & R. D. Bray (Isoetaceae, Lycophyta), is described from Akkar District of northern Lebanon. It is a seasonal terrestrial species of basaltic soils, diploid (2n = 22), with complete velum coverage. Megaspore diameter ranges from 338 to 477 μm with remote, low tuberculate ornamentation and a low to obsolete equatorial girdle; microspore length ranges from 25 to 30 μm, with echinate ornamentation. At the type locality of I. libanotica, two other Isoetes L. species occur sympatrically. These superficially similar Isoetes species can be differentiated from I. libanotica using megaspore characters; I. duriei Bory has larger alveolate megaspores and I. olympica A. Braun has a prominent equatorial girdle.
Several morphotypes of simple inflorescences occurring in the genus Spiraea L. (Rosaceae), widely used for classification and determination, but not uniformly interpreted in the literature, are correctly defined. Taxonomically, S. compsophylla Hand.-Mazz. is synonymized with the imperfectly known S. calcicola W. W. Sm., whose amplified description and illustration are added. A newly distinguished species, hitherto confused with the former name, is described from Yunnan Province in China and illustrated as S. adiantoides Businský, with its assignment to section Glomeratae Nakai. Two imperfectly known and confused species of Spiraea sect. Chamaedryon Ser. from Taiwan, S. tarokoensis Hayata and S. tatakaensis I. S. Chen, are carefully described, illustrated, and compared with six similar Chinese species. A new variety, S. lasiocarpa var. villosa Businský, is described from western Sichuan Province, accepting the concept that S. lasiocarpa Kar. & Kir., described from today's eastern Kazakhstan and hitherto neglected in Chinese floras, is the correct name for the Chinese taxon S. mongolica Maxim. Two imperfectly known taxa from southwestern Sichuan, S. muliensis T. T. Yu & L. T. Lu and S. daochengensis L. T. Lu, were found to be conspecific after comparison of their respective holotypes and a newly found population; the former is accepted as the correct name. Spiraea sericea Turcz. is accepted only at the rank of the variety as S. media Schmidt var. sericea (Turcz.) Maxim. A key to the Chinese species of Spiraea with simple inflorescences is newly compiled, encompassing 40 species.
A new species, Castanopsis glabrifolia J. Q. Li & Li Chen, and one new name, C. hsiensiui (X. M. Chen & B. P. Yu) J. Q. Li & Li Chen (Fagaceae), are described from Hainan, China. They both grow on sandy beaches. Castanopsis glabrifolia is closely related to C. chinensis (Spreng.) Hance, differing from it by having smaller leaves, shorter petioles, fewer secondary veins, and smaller cupules that are incompletely covered by shorter spines. Castanopsis chinensis var. hainanica X. M. Chen & B. P. Yu is treated as a new synonym of C. glabrifolia. The new name C. hsiensiui is proposed, based on C. hainanensis Merr. var. litoralis X. M. Chen & B. P. Yu, with the variety recognized at higher rank based on its glabrous branches and petioles, the smaller cupules with the external surfaces visible, and the nuts that are glabrous or sparsely pubescent near the apex.
Inga pitmanii K. G. Dexter & T. D. Penn., a new species of Inga Mill. from Madre de Dios, Peru, is described for the Fabaceae (Mimosoideae). Morphologically it is closest to I. chartacea Poepp. & Endl., with which it shares a broadly winged rhachis, spicate inflorescence, glabrous leaves, nine to 10 pairs of secondary veins, and similar calyx indumentum. Inga pitmanii differs from I. chartacea in the leaflet number (four pairs vs. usually two or three pairs), the foliar nectaries (cyathiform vs. patelliform), and the larger flowers (with corollas 9–11.5 mm vs. 4.5–7 mm). Phylogenetic analyses show this species belongs to a clade including I. acreana Harms and I. chartacea. This species was discovered during field surveys for an ecological study of the genus Inga at the Los Amigos Biological Station in Madre de Dios, Peru. These field surveys uncovered several potentially novel species of the genus Inga, none of which matched any known species based on vegetative characters and the majority of which are genetically distinct. Here we describe I. pitmanii as this is the only species that was collected in a fertile state. Given current and future limitations in taxonomic expertise and funding, we advocate consideration of nonconventional approaches to species discovery, such as combining biodiversity surveys with large-scale DNA sequencing. This would in turn allow ecologists, who often collect plants in poorly known regions, to make a greater contribution to the species-discovery process.
Briza L. (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poeae) is a genus with a controversial circumscription, being either considered sensu lato, including Eurasian and South American species (e.g., Longhi-Wagner, 1987), or sensu stricto, including only four Eurasian species and being considered closely related to the South American species, forming the Briza complex (Matthei, 1975). According to recent phylogenetic analysis, Briza should be accepted sensu stricto, with four Eurasian species, as proposed by Matthei (1975) and other authors. The American species, which were previously published under Briza s.l. or under the genera Calotheca Desv., Chascolytrum Desv., Erianthecium Parodi, Gymnachne Parodi, Lombardochloa Roseng. & B. R. Arrill., Microbriza Parodi ex Nicora & Rúgolo, Poidium Nees, and Rhombolytrum Link, should be included within Chascolytrum, the oldest generic name published for the American species of the complex. As a result, the following 13 new combinations are proposed in Chascolytrum: C. ambiguum (Hack.) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. bidentatum (Roseng., B. R. Arrill. & Izag.) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. brachychaetum (Ekman) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. brasiliense (Nees ex Steud.) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. brizoides (Lam.) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. bulbosum (Parodi) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. calotheca (Trin.) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. itatiaiae (Ekman) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. koelerioides (Trin.) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. monandrum (Hack.) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. poomorphum (J. Presl) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, C. rhomboideum (Link) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies, and C. uniolae (Nees) Essi, Longhi-Wagner & Souza-Chies. The names Poa koelerioides Trin., Poa tumidula Steud., Poidium brasiliense Nees ex Steud., and Rhombolytrum berteroanum E. Desv. are lectotypified.
While studying the species of Zornia J. F. Gmel. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Dalbergieae) from Brazil for taxonomic revision of the genus, eight lectotypifications are proposed: Hedysarum bifolium Vell., Z. diphylla (L.) Pers. var. bernardinensis Chodat & Hassl., Z. diphylla var. elatior Benth., Z. diphylla f. ciliata Chodat & Hassl., Z. myriadena Benth., Z. perforata Vogel, Z. reticulata Sm., and Z. sericea Moric., as well as two neotypifications for Z. brasiliensis Vogel and Z. ovata Vogel. A new combination, Z. vichadana (Killip ex Mohlenbr.) Fort.-Perez & A. M. G. Azevedo is proposed, based upon Z. pardina Mohlenbr. var. vichadana Kilip ex Mohlenbr. Eighteen new synonymizations are also included.
We describe Gaultheria paucinervia P. W. Fritsch & C. M. Bush (Ericaceae: Gaultherieae), a new species apparently restricted to the eastern slopes of Mt. Kinabalu in Sabah State, Borneo, Malaysia. This species has been confused with G. borneensis Stapf, but differs in its more erect habit and larger stature, longer nonappressed leaf trichomes, purple (vs. white) fruiting calyx, and lower elevation range, among other features. The two species are furthermore well separated in molecular phylogenetic analyses, with G. paucinervia grouping in a clade of other eastern Asian species sharing whitish green abaxial leaf surfaces, racemose inflorescences, and a fleshy calyx surrounding a dry capsule.
Hoya jianfenglingensis Shao Y. He & P. T. Li (Apocynaceae) is described as a new species from Hainan, China. The morphological characters of H. jianfenglingensis are illustrated and compared with the related species, H. fungii Merr. and H. carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. Hoya jianfenglingensis differs in its leaf indumentum, the prominent lateral veins in six to 10 pairs, the evident glands at the corona base, and the smaller corolla (only to 1.5 cm diam.). Hoya jianfenglingensis is assigned to section Hoya within the genus on the basis of the acute outer angle of the corona lobes.
The name Senecio L. ser. Chilenses DC. ex M. G. López, A. F. Wulff & Xifreda is here validated to replace Senecio ser. Suffruticosi Cabrera, non Senecio sect. Suffruticosi Greenm. Although the epithet Suffruticosi was published at different infrageneric ranks within Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) for two different taxa from South and North America, respectively, the two epithets are considered homonyms. Series Chilenses was previously published by de Candolle, but without a description.
Taxonomic study of the diversity of Musella lasiocarpa (Franch.) C. Y. Wu ex H. W. Li (Musaceae) in China has revealed an attractive new variety from Sichuan Province, southwestern China. Musella lasiocarpa var. rubribracteata Zhenghong Li & H. Ma differs from the autonymic variety by its orange-red to red bracts, the reddish to purple-red coloration of the abaxial surfaces of the petiole and leaf midrib, and a weaker ability of clone reproduction.
From eastern North America, the glandular pubescent variety of Osmunda cinnamomea L. var. glandulosa Waters (Osmundaceae) is transferred as Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl var. glandulosum (Waters) McAvoy.
Synandropus membranaceus A. C. Sm. (Menispermaceae), known previously only from the type collection, is lectotypified and Synandropus A. C. Sm. is reduced to synonymy of Odontocarya Miers, within section Somphoxylon (Eichler) Barneby. The new combination O. membranacea (A. C. Sm.) R. Ortiz is made; O. uva-alba Barneby and O. arifolia Barneby are reduced to synonymy under O. membranacea.
Hechtia edulis I. Ramírez, Espejo & López-Ferr. (Bromeliaceae) is described and illustrated from Copper Canyon National Park, Chihuahua, Mexico. The new entity is characterized by its caespitose, monocarpic habit, by its small rosettes, and by the similarity of its staminate and pistillate inflorescences in size, the simple panicles with the branching much shortened, the flowers sessile, the floral bracts scarious, and pistillate flowers with petals green and carnose.
A new species of Paspalum L. (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae), P. rostratum D. Ramos, Valls & R. C. Oliveira, from the Distrito Federal in central Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species is awned and is related to P. biaristatum Filg. & Davidse and P. longiaristatum Davidse & Filg., to which it is compared. Distinguishing features of P. rostratum include shorter awns and a rostrate upper lemma, as well as the free branching and flowering from the upper nodes, with the successive branches forming cymose branching systems.
A rare endemic species on Ulleung Island, Korea, is transferred from Physocarpus (Cambess.) Raf. (Rosaceae) to Spiraea L., based on morphology and DNA sequence data. The new combination S. insularis (Nakai) H. Shin, Y. D. Kim & S. H. Oh is proposed.
Manglietia crassifolia Q. N. Vu, N. H. Xia & Sima, a new species of Magnoliaceae from Lao Cai Province in northern Vietnam, is described and illustrated. It is most closely related to M. dandyi (Gagnep.) Dandy and M. megaphylla Hu & W. C. Cheng, but differs in its broadly ovoid terminal buds, the thickly leathery leaf blade that is abaxially densely villous with appressed, ferruginous-brown, matted hairs, the purplish cream outermost tepals, the glabrous and purplish red stamens with obtuse appendages, and the ellipsoid, very short-beaked fruits.
During preparation of the taxonomic treatment of Davalliaceae for the Flora of China, it was noticed that specimens of Davallia Sm. collected from Guangxi Province, China, differed from other known species in the Davalliaceae. Davallia napoensis F. G. Wang & F. W. Xing is herein described and illustrated as new to science. It is morphologically similar to D. solida (G. Forst.) Sw., but differs mainly by its rhizome scales that are triangular, with an obtuse apex and glabrous margin, the petiole of the lamina 20–24 cm long, and the widely crateriform and basifixed indusium.
A new species of Gesneriaceae, Petrocosmea huanjiangensis Yan Liu & W. B. Xu, is described and illustrated from northern Guangxi, China. The new species is related to P. martini (H. Lév.) H. Lév. but is distinguished on the basis of the peltate leaf blade, the densely lanate androecial filaments 6–7.2 mm long, the rostellate, cordate-ovoid anthers that are constricted near the apex, and the three staminodes, 2–3 mm long.
Taxonomic evaluation of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. var. angulatum S. Y. Liu (Polygonaceae) reveals that a new combination in Fallopia Adans. is necessary, and the name F. multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson var. angulata (S. Y. Liu) H. J. Yan, Z. J. Fang & Shi Xiao Yu is proposed. The new variety differs from the typical one by its square branchlets with longitudinal ridges that are densely papillate and by its root tubers with a greater abundance of fibers and abnormal vascular strands evident in anatomical cross section.