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The type of Dendrophthora bonaniae is clarified, and lectotypes for Dendrophthora domingensis, D. ekmanii (a synonym of D. domingensis), D. glauca, D. nipensis (a synonym of D. glauca), D. oocarpa (a synonym of D. domingensis), and D. purpurascens are designated. In addition, a new taxonomic status for D. glauca subsp. purpurascens is proposed.
Frontenac Provincial Park is located on the Frontenac Axis, a southern extension of the Canadian Shield, linking Algonquin Park to the Adirondack Mountains. To better understand the lichen biota of this interesting ecosystem, an inventory was conducted during several field visits from 2016–2019. During these surveys, 280 species of lichens and allied fungi in 115 genera were discovered. Presented is the first published record of Lempholemma cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. in Canada, as well as the first published discoveries of Cladonia petrophila R. C. Harris, Coccocarpia palmicola (Spreng.) Arv. & D. J. Galloway, and Leprocaulon adhaerens (K. Knudsen, Elix & Lendemer) Lendemer & B. P. Hodk. in Ontario. Sixteen species are provincially ranked as critically imperilled (S1, S1S2 or S1S3), sixteen species as imperilled (S2 or S2S3), and nineteen species as vulnerable (S3 or S3S4). Unranked species reported for the second time in Canada are Dermatocarpon muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. and Cladonia atlantica A. Evans. An undescribed species of Lempholemma growing on flooded deciduous tree bases in vernal pools was also discovered. A discussion of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., a pollution and habitat disturbance sensitive species, is presented. The records of L. pulmonaria discovered in Frontenac quite possibly represent the most southern observations in the province and are of conservation concern. It is recommended that a lichen awareness and education program be created for the park staff and visitors to highlight these rare and sensitive lichens and habitats within the park in the hope that lichens are protected through appropriate management and planning.
This is the first checklist of Maine mosses since the publication of the state bryoflora, Maine Mosses. The checklist lists and ranks the 455 taxa of mosses that have been collected in Maine. This includes collections cited in Maine Mosses and/or the Tropicos Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden (denoted by M). These collections have been verified by Bruce Allen, Lewis Anderson, or Richard Andrus. Literature reports cited in Maine Mosses are denoted by m. Also included are collections in the database of the Consortium of North American Bryological Herbaria (denoted by r). The identity of these latter collections is mostly unverified with the exception of the Sphagnum. An * denotes species not yet found in Maine but expected to occur there.
Silene regia Sims (Caryophyllaceae), commonly referred to as royal catchfly, is known to ensnare small insects with its glandular trichomes. This morphological adaptation is primarily thought to deter herbivory, but in many plant species glandular trichomes have been co-opted to secrete digestive enzymes that, when combined with an ability to absorb released nutrients, form the basis of a carnivorous life habit. To determine if S. regia is carnivorous we investigated the following: (1) whether S. regia actively attracts, captures, and retains prey, and/or secretes digestive enzymes to facilitate nutrient absorption; and (2) whether it absorbs and translocates the resultant nutrients. We tested the first requirement of carnivory through field observations, ultraviolet photography, scanning electron microscopy imaging, and a series of experiments designed to examine a capture-induced proteinase response. While S. regia was able to passively ensnare insects and possessed highly specialized morphological structures for doing so, a form of active attractant could not be demonstrated. Furthermore, negative test results for a capture-induced proteinase response suggest S. regia does not actively secrete proteases that would act on captured insects. As the criterion of actively attracting and/or digesting prey is unsupported, we conclude that S. regia is not carnivorous. Instead, we propose the glandular trichomes on the S. regia calyx provide a passive defensive benefit to the flowers and seeds by protecting the very structures that are supporting their development.