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15 October 2013 Two new species of the genus Phrathicarus from New Zealand (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae)
Dong Liu, Zhi-Qiang Zhang
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Abstract

The genus Phrathicarus (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) was represented by only one species prior to this work. In this paper, two new species of Phrathicarus are described from New Zealand: Phrathicaruslongisensillus sp. nov. from the Red Island, Mercury Islands, and Phrathicarus hikurangi sp. nov. from Mt. Hikurangi, Northland. A key to all known species of Phrathicarus is provided.

Introduction

The genus Phrathicarus (Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) was established by Niedbała in 1994 with a new species from New Zealand, Phrathicarus inflatus, as its type species. Since then, this genus has remained monotypic (Subías 2013). This genus is characterized by the following features: body surface punctate; dorsal and lateral fields of prodorsum not fused; lateral carinae and posterior furrows of prodorsum absent; interlamellar setae erect; neotrichy of notogastral setae present; nine pairs of genital setae present, setae g7g9 (or only g7 and g9) displaced towards the paraxial margin, in a row with g1g5, and setae g6 (or also g8) far away from the margin; four setae (ad1, an1, an2 and ad2) form a row near the paraxial margin of ano-adanal plate; setae d on femora I located at the distal end of segment; setae v′ on femora I and setae l′ on genua IV present; setae d on tibiae IV short, coupled with solenidia; setae ft” on tarsi I normal (Niedbała 1994).

During the first author's visit to Landcare Research in Auckland in April 2012, we identified two new species of this genus from New Zealand Arthropod Collection. The purpose of this paper is to give detailed descriptions of the two new species and a key to all known species of Phrathicarus.

Material and methods

Measurements and descriptions are based on specimens mounted in temporary cavity slides that were studied using a light microscope equipped with a drawing attachment.

Terminology generally follows Niedbała (1992, 2000). The unit of measurement is micrometre (μm).

All holotype specimens are deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, Auckland (NZAC). Paratype specimens are split between NZAC and Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (NIGA).

Descriptions of new species

Phrathicarus longisensillus sp. nov.
(Figs. 1–9)

  • Material examined: Holotype: adult (NZAC, in alcohol, 72/227), New Zealand: Red I. Mercury Is. Cl., from mainly Myrsine litter, 24 Nov., 1972, leg. G. W. Ramsay. Paratype: one adult (NIGA, in alcohol, 72/227), same data as holotype.

  • Etymology. Named for its long sensilli on the prodorsum and used here as a noun in apposition.

  • Description. Measurements. Holotype: Prodorsum: length 450, width 350, height 130, setae: ss195, ro 82, le 33, in 300, ex 75; notogaster: length 1050, width 680, height 660; setae: c1 360, d1 80, e1 200, h1 350, ps1 360; ventral region: g9 50, ad1 214, ad3 100; genitoaggenital plate 225×297, anoadanal plate 200×400. Paratype: Prodorsum: length 445, width 350, height 130; notogaster: length 1020, width 670, height 653.

    Integument. Colour yellowish. Surface of body finely punctate.

    Prodorsum (Figs. 1–2). Median crista absent; sigillar fields distinct, dorsal field widened towards rostral setae, longer than lateral fields; sensilli (ss) long, narrow, rough, gradually tapering; interlamellar setae (in) long, stout and rough; lamellar (le) and rostral setae (ro) short, much thinner than interlamellar setae; exobothridial setae (ex) short and fine; comparative length: in>ss>ro>ex>le, in/le=9.1; mutual distance of setae: in-in/ro-ro=1.74.

    Notogaster (Fig. 1). 17 pairs of setae in different length (c1>c1d1=1.25), robust and rough; setae h3, ps2–4 and ps4′medium long; setae d1–2 and e2 much shorter than other setae; setae c1–3 far away from anterior border, setae c1 and c2 more so than c3; additional setae present in ps or (and) hseries; two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present.

    Gnathosoma (Figs. 5–7). Subcapitulum normal (Fig. 5); setae h, m, and a simple and smooth; setae h equal to distance between them; adoral seta or1 apparently flat with barbs; or2–3 simple and smooth; palp (Fig. 6) 4-segmented, with femur and genu fused; palpal setation: 0-2-2-7(1); supracoxal seta simple and smooth; chelicera (Fig. 7) with two smooth setae (cha, chb).

    Ano-genital region (Figs. 1, 3–4). Nine pairs of genital setae (g) present with formula: 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates each with five pairs of stout and rough setae (an and ad), setae ad3 shortest.

    Legs (Figs. 8–9). Setal counts for leg segments (without tarsi): I: 1-4-2(2)-4(1); II: 1-3-2(1)-3(1), III: 2-2-1(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1-2(1); setae ft″ on tarsi II straight distally; setae s and pv′ on tarsi IV present; setae s on tarsi I and II present.

  • Remark. Comparing with the species P. inflatus Niedbała, 1994, the new species can be easily distinguished by the following five characters (a versus b): in P. longisensillus sp. nov., (1a) dorsal sigillar field longer than lateral fields; (2a) interlamellar, rostral and notogastral setae not flagellatedistally; (3a) comparative length of prodorsal setae: in>ss>ro>ex>le; (4a) 17 pairs of notogastral setae present, additional setae present only in ps series; (5a) two pairs of lyrifissures ia and impresent; in P. inflatus, (1b) dorsal sigillar field short, not longer than lateral fields; (2b) interlamellar, rostral and some notogastral setae flagellate distally; (3b) comparative length of prodorsal setae: in>ro>ss>le>ex; (4b) 19 pairs of notogastral setae present, additional setae present in c and ps series; (5b) only one pair of lyrifissures im present.

  • FIGURES 1–9.

    Phrathicarus longisensillus sp. nov.: 1, lateral view of body (legs removed); 2, prodorsum, dorsal view; 3, left side of genitoaggenital plate; 4, left side of anoadanal plate; 5, subcapitulum, palpi removed; 6, palp, antiaxial view; 7, chelicera, antiaxial view; 8, femur I; 9, tibia IV. Scale bars: 1=200 μm; 2–4, 7–9=100 μm; 5–6=50 μm.

    f01_233.jpg

    Phrathicarus hikurangi sp. nov.
    (Figs. 10–18)

  • Material examined: Holotype: adult (NZAC, in alcohol, 79/1), New Zealand: GB, Mt. Hikurangi, 1372m, from litter in subalpine bush dominated by Nothofagus menziesii and Olearia colensoi, 14 Jan., 1979, leg. A. K. Walker and R. A. Galbreath. Paratypes: three adults (NZAC, in alcohol, 79/1), same data as holotype; one adult (NIGA, in alcohol, 79/1), same data as holotype.

  • Etymology. Named after type locality and used here as a noun in apposition; Mt. Hikurangi (1754 metres) is the highest peak in the rugged Raukumara Range in the North Island and is recognised as the first point on the New Zealand mainland to greet the morning sun.

  • Description. Measurements. Holotype: Prodorsum: length 530, width 365, height 230, setae: ss 200, ro 175, le 450, in 555, ex 45; notogaster: length 1030, width 740, height 780; setae: c1 650, d1 95, e1 370, h1 770, ps1 600; ventral region: g9 70, g8 50, g1 25; genitoaggenital plate 270×230, anoadanal plate 215×400. Paratypes: Prodorsum: length 501–600, width 360–410, height 208–220; notogaster: length 1020–1200, width 720–880, height 750–900.

    Integument. Colour brown. Surface of body finely punctate.

    Prodorsum (Figs. 10–12). Median crista absent; sigillar fields distinct, dorsal field widened towards rostral setae, longer than lateral fields; sensilli long, narrow, rough, gradually tapering; interlamellar and lamellar setae long, stout, erect and rough, flagellate distally; rostral setae stout and rough, exceeding the end of rostrum; exobothridial setae short and fine; comparative length: in>le>ss>ro>ex, in/le=1.2; mutual distance of setae: in-in/ro-ro≈1.65.

    Notogaster (Fig. 10–11). 26 pairs of setae in different length present; setae d1–2 and h3 robust, rough, very short; setae e1 and e2 medium long; other setae long (c1>c1d1), robust, rough andflagellate distally; setae c1–3 situated nearly in same level, setae cp close to c3; additional setae present in c, e and ps series; vestigial setae f1 not observed; two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present.

    Gnathosoma (Figs. 14–16). Subcapitulum normal (Fig. 14); setae h, m, and a simple and smooth; setae h longer than distance between them; adoral seta or1 apparently flat with barbs; or2–3 simple and smooth; palp (Fig. 15) 4-segmented, with femur and genu fused; palpal setation: 0-2-2-7(1); supracoxal seta simple and smooth; chelicera (Fig. 16) with two smooth setae (cha, chb).

    Ano-genital region (Figs. 10, 13). Nine pairs of genital setae present with formula: 6(4+2): 3, setae g6–9 longer than other genital setae; anoadanal plates each with five to seven pairs of stout and rough setae (e.g. holotype: left side of anoadanal plates with six setae, right side of anoadanal plates with seven setae; one of paratypes: left side of anoadanal plates with six setae, right side of anoadanal plates with five setae); setae ad3, ad3 and ad3 shortest.

    Legs (Figs. 17–18). Setal counts for leg segments (without tarsi): I: 1-4-2(2)-4(1); II: 1-3-2(1)-3(1), III: 2-2-1(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1-2(1); setae ft″ on tarsi II straight distally; setae s and pv′ on tarsi IV present; setae s on tarsi I and II present.

  • Remark. This new species is unique in having 26 pairs of notogastral setae, because none of species of this group has been reported in having more than 19 pairs of notogastral setae. In addition, this new species can be easily distinguished from other species of this genus by the combination of following characters: (1) dorsal sigillar fields longer than lateral regions; (2) interlamellar, lamellar and some notogastral setae long and flagellate distally, rostral setae without flagellate distal ends; (3) in>le>ss>ro>ex, in/le=1.2; (4) two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present; (5) 1–2 additional setae present on each anoadanal plate in some specimens.

  • FIGURES 10–18.

    Phrathicarus hikurangi sp. nov.: 10, lateral view of body (legs removed); 11, dorsal view of body (legs removed); 12, prodorsum, dorsal view; 13, right side of ventral plate; 14, subcapitulum, palpi removed; 15, palp, antiaxial view; 16, chelicera, antiaxial view; 17, femur I; 18, tibia IV. Scale bars: 10–11=200 μm; 12–13=100 μm; 14–18=50 μm.

    f10_233.jpg

    Key to species of Phrathicarus

    1 26 pairs of notogastral setae present P. hikurangi sp. nov.

    - Less than 20 pairs of notogastral setae present 2

    217 pairs of notogastral setae present; comparative length of prodorsal setae: in>ss>ro>ex>le P. longisensillus sp. nov.

    -19 pairs of notogastral setae present; comparative length of prodorsal setae: in>ro>ss>le>ex P. inflatus Niedbała, 1994

    Acknowledgements

    We are very grateful to Prof. Jun Chen, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences for supplying references to the first author. We thank all the people who collected specimens for us. Sincere thanks are also due to Prof Wojciech Niedbała, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland, for the critical reading of the manuscript and valuable suggestions. The first author's work was supported by the Funds for The Excellent Youth Scholars of “NEIGAE, CAS” (DLSYQ2012004), the Knowledge Innovation Programs of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KSCX2-EW-Z-8), the Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China—Fauna Sinica (31093430), the key research program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KZZD-EW-TZ-16), and the National Natural Science-Foundation of China (Grant No. 31101617). The second author's research on defining New Zealand mites was supported by Core funding for Crown Research Institutes from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment's Science and Innovation Group.

    References

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    W. Niedbała ( 1992) Phthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida). Systematic Studies. PWN-Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 612 pp. Google Scholar

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    W. Niedbała ( 1994) Supplement to the classification of Phthiracaroidea, with redescriptions and descriptions of some species (Acari, Oribatida, Euptyctima). Genus , 5 (1–2), 1–152. Google Scholar

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    W. Niedbała ( 2000) The ptyctimous mites fauna of the Oriental and Australian Regions and their centres of origin (Acari: Oribatida). Genus, supplement, 1–493. Google Scholar

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    L.S. Subías ( 2013) Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes: Oribatida) del mundo (Excepto fósiles). Graellsia , 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305 (2004) (Actualizado en junio de 2006, en abril de 2007, en mayo de 2008, en abril de 2009, en julio de 2010, en febrero de 2011 y en abril de 2012). Available from:  http://www.ucm.es/info/zoo/Artropodos/Catalogo.pdf (accessed 1 Sept. 2013). Google Scholar
    © 2013 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society
    Dong Liu and Zhi-Qiang Zhang "Two new species of the genus Phrathicarus from New Zealand (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae)," Systematic and Applied Acarology 18(3), 233-238, (15 October 2013). https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.18.3.5
    Accepted: 1 September 2013; Published: 15 October 2013
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