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Many bryophytes are intolerant of osmotic stresses; nevertheless, Bryum argenteum often spreads in golf course greens irrigated with water containing a moderate amount of sodium and/or bicarbonates. The ability of B. argenteum to survive in this stressful environment could be linked to the use of acid injection systems, which are often retrofitted to irrigation systems to combat the negative effects of these harmful salts. The objective of this study was to determine if altering the pH of sodic irrigation water using either sulfuric or hydrochloric acid affects the growth of B. argenteum. Secondarily, if growth of B. argenteum was affected, we sought to understand whether that effect was due to differences in nutrient uptake or availability under the different water pHs and/or acidifying sources. Phosphate buffer solutions (0.01 M, pH = 9) were titrated with each acid to obtain pHs 5, 6, 7 and 8. Irrigation solutions were applied daily to pots containing a sand substrate and nascent B. argenteum for 28 d. Acid source had no effect on moss cover, but pH significantly affected B. argenteum cover. Generally, pots irrigated with pHs 5 and 6 had six- to seven-fold increases in B. argenteum cover compared to pHs 7 and 8. Additionally, the shoot tissue of pots treated with pH 5 contained twice as much potassium compared to pots irrigated with pH 9. These results indicate the growth of B. argenteum increases when acid injection systems are used to amend sodic irrigation water.
Aspicilia bicensis is described as new to science from coastal rock outcrops in Parc national du Bic, Quebec in eastern Canada. Apothecia are unknown in the species, but it is nonetheless distinctive on account of its occurrence on maritime rocks, white areolate pustulose-sorediate thallus, and production of norstictic acid. The placement in Aspicilia is confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS sequence data.
Moss floras on granite outcrops in the Piedmont of Georgia and Alabama were studied by conducting thorough inventories of 15 outcrops, with the objective of investigating variation in moss flora composition among granite outcrops of different sizes. Across all 15 study sites 78 species were collected, with the number of species per site ranging from 23 at the smallest to 57 at the largest. Linear and nonlinear regression analyses comparing species number with area and with perimeter length showed that, of the four models tested, three nonlinear models produced substantially better results than the linear model, with the power model producing the best fitting curves among these three. In addition, species number was found to be more closely correlated with perimeter length than with area. Thirty-two of the most frequent species comprised the core group of granite outcrop mosses; they each occurred at 60–100% of the 15 sites and formed the bulk of the floras of all but the two largest outcrops. Eight species with primarily northern or southern distributions were found to also occur on granite outcrops, resulting in substantial range extensions. In the Piedmont these species occur only on granite outcrops, further emphasizing the uniqueness of these habitats in the southeastern U.S.A. Among these eight species were three new state records: Archidium minus and Dicranum polysetum in Alabama and Hygrohypnum alpestre in Georgia.
Bryoria section Implexae is a chemically and morphologically diverse group characterized by pendent growth form and non-spinulose branches. In this study, we examine the chemical diversity, distribution pattern and habitat preferences of European members of section Implexae in Finland. A total of 1253 specimens were collected from four vegetation zones and analysed with thin layer chromatography for secondary chemistry. Secondary chemistry of the specimens and vegetation zones had a significant interaction term in a generalized linear model (GLM) of sample frequencies, indicating that chemotype frequencies differed among vegetation zones. Forest structure interacted with vegetation zones and chemotypes indicating that chemotypes differed among forest structure classes, but also showing that forest structure classes differed among vegetation zones. The overall abundance of Bryoria spp. was significantly different among vegetation zones, increasing substantially from south to north. The abundance was also significantly higher in managed than in old-growth stands in the southern and in the middle boreal zones. This result may reflect the sampling scheme used in the study and shows that members of Implexae can thrive under favorable environmental conditions also in mature managed stands. Barbatolic acid was the most common chemotype, but its proportion clearly declined towards north. The characteristic distribution pattern suggests that the chemotype tolerates shady habitats typical for southern and middle boreal Picea-dominated forests in Finland. The gyrophoric acid chemotype was frequent in the middle boreal zone, but was relatively rare in the hemiboreal and northern boreal zones. The fumarprotocetraric acid chemotype occurred throughout the study area but was especially frequent in the southern boreal zone. The acid-deficient chemotype was most abundant in the northern boreal zone and was preferably late successional in the southern and middle boreal zones. Norstictic acid and psoromic acid chemotypes were both rare and continental in their distribution pattern and confined to the middle and especially northern boreal zones where the overall Bryoria abundance is high. According to this study, chemotypes in section Implexae have distinct ecological and climatic preferences despite the lack of genetic variation and this should be taken into account when using them as bioindicators.
Lecanora insignis is a rarely reported species in the L. subfusca group, previously known only from montane forests in the southern Appalachians, European Alps, Himalayas and Taiwan. Here, we report its discovery in wet Thuja occidentalis forests at elevations of 50 to 300 m in eastern Canada and northern Maine, U.S.A., along with three associated lichenicolous fungi. Ascospore size is shown to clearly differentiate L. insignis from the similar L. cinereofusca. The lichenicolous species Skyttea insignis is described as new to science, differing from S. lecanorae in its longer ascospores, larger ascomata and apparent host specificity. It is the most frequently encountered lichenicolous fungus on L. insignis in northeastern North America, occurring in nearly half of the collections examined in this study. Stigmidium congestum was found at two localities, one in New Brunswick, Canada, and one in Maine; it is new to North America. Paranectria oropensis is new to eastern Canada.
Radula hainanensis L.N.Zhang & R.L.Zhu sp. nov. (Radulaceae), a new species from Hainan Island of China, is described and illustrated. This species can be recognized by the presence of gemmae at the apical and dorsal margins of leaf-lobes on ascending to erect shoots, the thin-walled leaf cells with triradiate trigones, and the occurrence of two different types of oil bodies within each leaf-lobe cell. It is superficially similar to Radula constricta, a common species in East Asia, which differs in having larger leaf-lobules 1/2–2/3 as long as the leaf-lobes, only one type of oil body within each leaf-lobe cell, and absence of ascending to erect gemmiferous shoots.
As part of a comprehensive biodiversity inventory of Galapagos lichens, species in the genus Rinodina were reviewed. If most of the new species occur only in the archipelago, the degree of endemism in Galapagos Rinodina could be as high as 37%, significantly higher than the rate previously suggested for Galapagos lichens in general (8–10%). Across South America the genus Rinodina has, however, been very poorly studied. It is therefore currently not possible to assess if this rate of endemism will be confirmed in the long run. In addition to the newly described species, several are reported for the first time from Ecuador: Rinodina colobinoides occurs both in Galapagos and on the mainland; R. lepida is so far not known from continental Ecuador. Rinodina subtubulata was previously known only from its type locality in New Zealand. A key to all species and detailed descriptions to the new taxa as well as the poorly known R. subtubulata are provided.