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Wasps of the family Ichneumonidae recorded as parasitoids of Choristoneura Lederer (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America are summarized. A total of 113 species in 45 genera and 11 subfamilies have been reliably reared from 10 species of Nearctic Choristoneura. Twenty-one more species are listed as possible parasitoids of Nearctic Choristoneura, based on rearings from Palearctic Choristoneura species and (or) limited introductions to North America. Well-illustrated identification keys are provided to the subfamilies, all genera, and species of 39 of the genera. The species of Choristoneura used as hosts by the 113 ichneumonid species are tabulated, as well as the wasps' geographic ranges. The biological characteristics of the ichneumonid subfamilies parasitizing Choristoneura spp. are described and compared. Erroneous Choristoneura host records and synonyms for all ichneumonid taxa previously recorded from Nearctic Choristoneura spp. are given. Phaeogenes gaspesianus Provancher is moved to Dirophanes Förster, forming D. gaspesianus (Provancher) comb. nov. New host records are Phaeogenes cacoeciae Viereck and Scambus hispae (Harris) on C. rosaceana (Harris), D. gaspesianus and Pimpla disparis Viereck on C. fumiferana (Clemens) (P. disparis having been introduced to New Brunswick to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)), and Exochus turgidus Holmgren on C. occidentalis Freeman.
The fauna of introduced rove beetles (Staphylinidae) in the Maritime Provinces of Canada is surveyed. Seventy-nine species have now been recorded. Of these, 73 have been found in Nova Scotia, 29 on Prince Edward Island, and 54 in New Brunswick. Twenty-five species are newly recorded in Nova Scotia, 16 on Prince Edward Island, and 10 in New Brunswick, for a total of 51 new provincial records. Of these, 15 species, Tachinus corticinus Gravenhorst, Mycetoporus lepidus (Gravenhorst), Habrocerus capillaricornis (Gravenhorst), Aleochara (Xenochara) lanuginosa Gravenhorst, Gnypeta caerulea (C.R. Sahlberg), Atheta (Microdota) amicula (Stephens), Cordalia obscura (Gravenhorst), Drusilla canaliculata (Fabricius), Deleaster dichrous (Gravenhorst), Coprophilus striatulus (Fabricius), Carpelimus subtilis (Erichson), Leptacinus intermedius Donisthorpe, Tasgius (Rayacheila) melanarius (Heer), Neobisnius villosulus (Stephens), and Philonthus discoideus (Gravenhorst), are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. Two of these, Atheta (Microdota) amicula and Carpelimus subtilis, are newly recorded in Canada. Leptacinus intermedius is removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick and Philhygra botanicarum Muona, a Holarctic species previously regarded as introduced in North America, is recorded for the first time in the Maritime Provinces. An examination of when species were first detected in the region reveals that, on average, it was substantially later than comparable dates for other, better known families of Coleoptera — an apparent indication of the comparative lack of attention this family has received. Some introduced species appear to be associated with the dry-ballast mechanism of introduction to the continent, while others are synanthropic and may have been inadvertently introduced in connection with agriculture, horticulture, or other processes associated with human activities. A substantial number are now established and well distributed, seemingly indicative of an early introduction into the region, the ability to successfully colonize a habitat and disperse within it, or a combination of these factors. Other species appear to be local in distribution, perhaps indicative of more recent introductions, more restricted ecological tolerances, a lesser ability to disperse, or a combination of these factors. These recent discoveries are discussed briefly in the context of the importance of taxonomic research and ongoing monitoring in order to detect and identify exotic species and monitor for new introductions and changes in existing native or introduced populations — all important in terms of assessing the risk of introductions to, and their impact on, native faunas and habitats.
The oribatid mite family Mycobatidae is represented in America north of Mexico by the eight genera, Cyrtozetes Behan-Pelletier, Ceresella Pavlitshenko, Guatemalozetes Mahunka, Minunthozetes Hull, Mycobates Hull, Pelopsis Hall, Punctoribates Berlese, and Zachvatkinibates Shaldybina. Species occur in forests, grasslands, and arctic soils, in canopy habitats, and in the marine and freshwater littoral zone. Three new mycobatid species from North America are described: Ceresella reevesisp. nov. from forest habitats of western North America, Cyrtozetes lindoaesp. nov. from canopy habitats of western Canada, and Punctoribates weigmannisp. nov. from forest litter in eastern North America. The descriptions of Pelopsis bifurcatus (Ewing) and Punctoribates punctum (C.L. Koch) are expanded based on specimens from North America. Punctoribates palustris (Banks) is redescribed based on specimens from throughout North America. Punctoribates armipes (Banks) is considered a junior subjective synonym of P. palustris (Banks). New distribution records are given for Guatemalozetes danos Behan-Pelletier and Ryabinin and Minunthozetes semirufus (Koch). Diagnoses are given for each genus discussed, and keys are provided to the eight genera of Mycobatidae of North America and to species of Cyrtozetes and Punctoribates, genera not recently revised.
A new species, Heterota sunjaei Park and Ahn sp. nov. (type locality: Geumgab Beach, Jindo, Jeonnam Province, Korea), is described from Korea. The new species is compared with the related species H. plumbea (Waterhouse) and H. arenaria Cameron and the differences are summarized. An illustration of the habitus and line drawings of diagnostic characters are presented. An annotated world catalog of the genus Heterota Mulsant and Rey is provided.
Pentanota meuseli Bernhauer was erroneously reported from Alaska, based on a misidentification of a specimen of Neothetalia sp. near N. columbiana Klimaszewski, and is here removed from the list of genera and species occurring in North America. A lectotype and a paralectotype are designated for the species from the only two existing original Bernhauer specimens. External and genital illustrations are provided to avoid identification problems in the future.
Cues used by parasitoids to detect habitat of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated by observing parasitoid attraction to logs infested with D. ponderosae, logs inoculated with one or both of the symbiotic fungi of D. ponderosae (Grosmannia clavigera (Rob.-Jeffr. & R.W. Davidson) Zipfel, Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf. (Ophiostomataceae) and Ophiostoma montium (Rumbold) Arx (Ophiostomataceae)), logs containing no beetles or fungi, or empty screen cylinders. Captures of Heydenia unica Cook and Davis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Rhopalicus pulchripennis (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on logs with both G. clavigera and O. montium were greater than those from control treatments. These results suggest that characteristics of tree tissues simultaneously colonized by the two symbiotic fungi facilitate a detectable change in the volatile compounds released from D. ponderosae-attacked trees that may be used by parasitoids to locate hosts.
Biodiversity and evolution / Biodiversité et évolution
Fourteen species of Carabidae are added to Prince Edward Island's (P.E.I.) faunal list, bringing the known fauna to 167 species. Bembidion nitidum (Kirby) and Bembidion obtusum Audinet-Serville are newly recorded for the Maritime Provinces. Six species are removed from P.E.I.'s faunal list. The history of collecting of Carabidae on P.E.I. is briefly recounted. Despite differences in land area and distance from the mainland between P.E.I., Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland, their carabid faunas exhibit many similarities in size and composition. The native carabid fauna of P.E.I. comprises 49% of the species in the combined Maritime Provinces fauna, perhaps reflecting an island-related diminution of species diversity. The proportion of flightless species on P.E.I. (4.9%) is less than that in the Maritime Provinces as a whole (7.1%), an apparent indication that the Northumberland Strait has been a barrier to colonization. Twenty-seven introduced species are found on P.E.I., 26 of which can be classified as synanthropic and may have originated in dry-ballast quarries in southwestern England. Although the earliest dates of detection of many introduced species on P.E.I. are substantially later than elsewhere in the Maritimes, this reflects the paucity of early collecting. Land-management practices on P.E.I. (large-scale and early forest clearances, intensive agriculture, and the extensive use of biocides) may have had an impact on P.E.I.'s carabid fauna.