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1 December 2021 Distribution and Trends of Endemic Hawaiian Waterbirds
Eben H. Paxton, Kevin Brinck, Adonia Henry, Afsheen Siddiqi, Rachel Rounds, Jennifer Chutz
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Four endemic species of wetland-dependent waterbirds occur on the main Hawaiian Islands, all of which have experienced sharp population declines and are listed as endangered species. Twice per year, state-wide surveys are conducted to count waterbirds, but these surveys are evaluated only infrequently. We used a state-space approach to evaluate long-term (1986–2016) and short-term (2006–2016) trends and current distribution and abundance of endemic Hawaiian waterbirds. The most numerous species was the Ae‘o, or Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni), with a 5-year estimated average abundance of 1,932 individuals, followed by ‘Alae Ke‘oke‘o, or Hawaiian Coot (Fulica alai), with 1,815 individuals, Alae ‘Ula, or Hawaiian Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata sandvicensis) with 927 individuals, and the Koloa Maoli, or Hawaiian Duck (Anas wyvilliana) with 931 individuals. All four species had positive trends over the long-term, but short-term and island specific trends were more variable, and in some cases negative. These results provide valuable information to help guide management of Hawaii’s threatened and endangered endemic waterbirds.

Eben H. Paxton, Kevin Brinck, Adonia Henry, Afsheen Siddiqi, Rachel Rounds, and Jennifer Chutz "Distribution and Trends of Endemic Hawaiian Waterbirds," Waterbirds 44(4), 425-437, (1 December 2021).
Received: 4 November 2020; Accepted: 13 March 2021; Published: 1 December 2021

Anas wyvilliana
endemic Hawaiian waterbird
Fulica alai
Gallinula galeata sandvicensis
Himantopus mexicanus knudseni
population trends
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