Crops transformed to provide resistance to herbicides with two different mechanisms of action provide new opportunities for control of herbicide-resistant weeds. However, unexpected interactions may develop, especially for herbicides not generally used in tank-mixtures. The objectives of this study were to evaluate weed control and determine herbicide interactions and fluorescence responses with combinations of glyphosate and glufosinate on selected weeds prevalent in Michigan cropping systems. Field studies to determine herbicide interactions resulted in synergism only at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 of glyphosate and 0.47 kg ai ha−1 glufosinate in 2008. Early synergism (7 d after treatment [DAT]) was observed in the field at several combined rates for common lambsquarters and velvetleaf in 2009, and in the greenhouse for giant foxtail. Differences between years were perhaps due to the effect of environmental conditions on herbicide absorption and translocation. Antagonism was observed in the field in 2009 for velvetleaf, common lambsquarters, and giant foxtail especially at 840 g ae ha−1 glyphosate and 118 g ai ha−1 glufosinate, 28 DAT. Antagonism was also observed in the greenhouse for giant foxtail and Canada thistle, 28 DAT. Fluorescence measurements on Canada thistle in the greenhouse showed that glufosinate and glufosinate plus glyphosate acted rapidly to quench electron transport of photosystem II (PS II) system of photosynthesis, and the fluorescence characteristics of the glyphosate and glufosinate combinations were indistinguishable from glufosinate alone.
Nomenclature: Glufosinate; glyphosate; Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L.; giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herrm.; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medik.