A survey of seven production fields in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio was conducted to assess henbit and purple deadnettle growth and soybean cyst nematode (SCN) development and reproduction on these weeds. Autumn and spring growth of purple deadnettle and henbit was influenced by location within each state. In general, winter annual weeds were larger in size and reached maturity earlier in the spring at the southern sample sites than those in the north. All growth stages of SCN were found to be associated with henbit and purple deadnettle at both autumn and spring sample timings. SCN juveniles were generally found infecting roots at highest abundance in the spring. SCN cyst and egg production also were widespread and occurred to a much higher degree during the autumn than the spring developmental period. The results of this survey indicate that management tactics designed to minimize the potential for SCN reproduction on winter annual weeds would probably be most effective if conducted in the autumn, when the majority of SCN reproduction occurred. However, spring populations of winter annual weeds that harbor SCN juveniles might facilitate additional SCN reproduction and population increase if the weeds are not controlled in a timely manner prior to planting.
Nomenclature: Henbit, Lamium amplexicaule L. LAMAM; purple deadnettle, Lamium purpureum L. LAMPU; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr; soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe.