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1 March 2016 Effect of Dry Heat, Direct Flame, and Straw Burning on Seed Germination of Weed Species Found in Lowbush Blueberry Fields
Scott N. White, Nathan S. Boyd
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Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dry heat, direct flame, and straw burning on germination of several weed species from lowbush blueberry fields. Dry heat experiments were designed as factorial arrangements of temperature (100, 200, and 300 C in experiment 1 and room temperature, 100, 200, and 300 C in experiment 2) and exposure time (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 s in experiment 1 and 2, 5, 10, and 20 s in experiment 2) to determine the exposure time required to reduce germination for each temperature. Susceptibility to dry heat varied across species tested, but germination of spreading dogbane, meadow salsify, fireweed, and hair fescue seeds collected from lowbush blueberry fields in Nova Scotia, Canada generally declined exponentially as a function of duration of heat exposure at the temperatures tested. Germination decreased more rapidly at higher temperatures in all species, although the duration of heat exposure required to reduce germination by 50 and 90% varied across temperatures and species. Exposure of seeds to direct flame rapidly reduced germination, with less than 1 s of exposure required to reduce seed germination of witchgrass, spreading dogbane, and meadow salsify by > 90%. Straw burning did not consistently reduce germination of hair fescue or winter bentgrass, indicating that a surface burn occurring above weed seeds may not be consistently effective at reducing seed viability. These results provide important estimates of the temperature and exposure times required to reduce viability of weed seeds in lowbush blueberry fields and suggest that thermal technologies that expose weed seeds to direct flame will be the most consistent in reducing seed viability.

Nomenclature: Fireweed, Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub CHAAN; hair fescue, Festuca filiformis Pourret FESTE; meadow salsify, Tragopogon pratensis L. TROPR; spreading dogbane, Apocynum androsaemifolium L. APCAN; winter bentgrass, Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.); witchgrass, Panicum capillaire L. PANCA; lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.

Experimentos fueron realizados para determinar los efectos de calor seco, llama directa, y la quema de paja sobre la germinación de varias especies de malezas en campos de arándano de arbusto bajo. Los experimentos con calor seco fueron diseñados como arreglos factoriales de temperatura (100, 200, y 300 C en el experimento 1, y temperatura ambiente, 100, 200, y 300 C en el experimento 2) y de duración de exposición (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, y 80 s en experimento 1, y 2, 5, 10, y 20 s en experimento 2), para determinar el tiempo de exposición requerido para reducir la germinación en cada temperatura. La susceptibilidad al calor seco varió entre las especies evaluadas, pero la germinación de semillas de Apocynum androsaemifolium, Tragopogon pratensis, Chamerion angustifolium, y Festuca filiformis colectadas en campos de arándano de arbusto bajo en Nova Scotia, Canada, generalmente declinó exponencialmente en función de la duración de la exposición al calor a las temperaturas evaluadas. La germinación disminuyó más rápidamente a temperaturas más altas en todas las especies, aunque la duración de la exposición al calor requerida para reducir la germinación en 50 y 90% varió entre las temperaturas y las especies. La exposición directa de semillas a llamas rápidamente redujo la germinación, con menos de 1 s de exposición requerida para reducir en >90% la germinación de las semillas de Panicum capillare, A. androsaemifolium, y T. pratensis. La quema de paja no redujo consistentemente la germinación de F.

Scott N. White and Nathan S. Boyd "Effect of Dry Heat, Direct Flame, and Straw Burning on Seed Germination of Weed Species Found in Lowbush Blueberry Fields," Weed Technology 30(1), 263-270, (1 March 2016).
Received: 10 July 2015; Accepted: 1 October 2015; Published: 1 March 2016

exposure time
lethal duration
perennial crops
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