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1 March 2016 Relative Lateral Movement in Surface Soil of Amicarbazone and Indaziflam Compared with Other Preemergence Herbicides for Turfgrass
Ramon G. Leon, J. Bryan Unruh, Barry J. Brecke
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Amicarbazone and indaziflam are relatively new herbicides that provide effective control of important weed species in turfgrass. A concern for golf course superintendents and turfgrass managers is the lack of information about runoff risk of these two herbicides, which is a limitation to their proper and safe use. The objectives of this research were (1) to compare lateral movement in surface soil of amicarbazone and indaziflam to other commonly used PRE herbicides in turfgrass (i.e., dithiopyr, prodiamine, pronamide, simazine) and (2) to determine whether incorporating the herbicide with irrigation before a simulated storm event reduces lateral movement. Herbicides were applied at full label rates in two locations (Jay and Milton, FL) with 14% slope, and lateral movement was evaluated using perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass as bioindicators. Incorporating PRE herbicides with irrigation a few hours before a major simulated storm event did not reduce lateral movement of any of the herbicides evaluated. All herbicides moved outside the treated area regardless of the presence of a simulated storm event. Herbicide lateral movement varied from 61 to 153 cm in Jay, and from 5 to 103 cm in Milton. The Milton location had higher sand content and lower organic matter content than Jay, which favored water infiltration. No herbicide effects were observed 210 cm downslope from the treated area. On the basis of our results, the ranking from highest to lowest lateral movement was pronamide > simazine ≥ indaziflam > amicarbazone ≥ dithiopyr > prodiamine. The difference in lateral movement was approximately 60 to 80 cm between pronamide and prodiamine depending on location and evaluation timing for the 14% slope at the study sites. The results of the present study provide guidance for golf course superintendents and turfgrass managers to determine buffer zones in sensitive areas.

Nomenclature: Amicarbazone; dithiopyr; indaziflam; prodiamine; pronamide; simazine; annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., POAAN; perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., LOLPE.

Amicarbazone e indaziflam son unos herbicidas relativamente nuevos que brindan un control efectivo de especies de malezas importantes en céspedes. Una preocupación para los superintendentes de campos de golf y profesionales en el manejo de céspedes es la poca información acerca del riesgo de lavado superficial de estos dos herbicidas, los cual es una limitación para su uso apropiado y seguro. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron (1) comparar el movimiento lateral sobre la superficie del suelo de amicarbazone e indaziflam con otros herbicidas comúnmente usados en preemergencia (PRE) en céspedes (i.e. dithiopyr, prodiamine, pronamide, simazine) y (2) determinar si el incorporar el herbicida con un riego antes de un evento de tormenta simulada reduce el movimiento lateral. Los herbicidas fueron aplicados a dosis completas según las etiquetas, en dos sitios (Jay y Milton, Florida) con 14% de pendiente, y el movimiento lateral fue evaluado usando Lolium perenne y Poa annua como bioindicadores. El incorporar herbicidas PRE con un riego unas cuantas horas antes de un evento mayor de tormenta simulada no redujo el movimiento lateral de ninguno de los herbicidas evaluados. Todos los herbicidas se movieron fuera del área tratada sin importar la presencia del evento de tormenta simulada. El movimiento lateral del herbicida varió de 61 a 153 cm en Jay y de 5 a 103 cm en Milton. El sitio en Milton tenía mayor contenido de arena y un menor contenido de materia orgánica que el sitio en Jay, lo que favoreció la infiltración de agua. No se observó ningún efecto de los herbicidas a 210 cm pendiente abajo del área tratada. Con base en nuestros resultados, el ranking de mayor a menor movimiento lateral fue pronamide > simazine ≥ in

Ramon G. Leon, J. Bryan Unruh, and Barry J. Brecke "Relative Lateral Movement in Surface Soil of Amicarbazone and Indaziflam Compared with Other Preemergence Herbicides for Turfgrass," Weed Technology 30(1), 229-237, (1 March 2016).
Received: 5 August 2015; Accepted: 1 September 2015; Published: 1 March 2016

environmental impact
herbicide movement
integrated weed management
water quality
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