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1 December 2018 A New Approach to Quantify Herbicide Volatility
David G. Ouse, James M. Gifford, Jerome Schleier, David D. Simpson, Holger H. Tank, Curtiss J. Jennings, Suresh P. Annangudi, Pablo Valverde-Garcia, Robert A. Masters
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Abstract

Herbicide active ingredients, formulation type, ambient temperature, and humidity can influence volatility. A method was developed using volatility chambers to compare relative volatility of different synthetic auxin herbicide formulations in controlled environments. 2,4-D or dicamba acid vapors emanating after application were captured in air-sampling tubes at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after herbicide application. The 2,4-D or dicamba was extracted from sample tubes and quantified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Volatility from 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA) was determined to be greater than that of 2,4-D choline in chambers where temperatures were held at 30 or 40 C and relative humidity (RH) was 20% or 50%. Air concentration of 2,4-D DMA was 0.399 µg m-3 at 40 C and 20% RH compared with 0.005 µg m-3 for 2,4-D choline at the same temperature and humidity at 24 h after application. Volatility from 2,4-D DMA and 2,4-D choline increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40 C. However, volatility from 2,4-D choline was lower than observed from 2,4-D DMA. Volatility from 2,4-D choline at 40 C increased from 0.00458 to 0.0263 µg m-3 and from 0.00341 to 0.025 µg m-3 when humidity increased from 20% to 50% at 72 and 96 h after treatment, respectively, whereas, volatility from 2,4-D DMA tended to be higher at 20% RH compared with 50% RH. Air concentration of dicamba diglycolamine was similar at all time points when measured at 40 C and 20% RH. By 96 h after treatment, there was a trend for lower air concentration of dicamba compared with earlier timings. This method using volatility chambers provided good repeatability with low variability across replications, experiments, and herbicides.

Nomenclature: 2,4-D choline; 2,4-D dimethlyamine (DMA); dicamba diglycolamine (DGA).

© Weed Science Society of America, 2018. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
David G. Ouse, James M. Gifford, Jerome Schleier, David D. Simpson, Holger H. Tank, Curtiss J. Jennings, Suresh P. Annangudi, Pablo Valverde-Garcia, and Robert A. Masters "A New Approach to Quantify Herbicide Volatility," Weed Technology 32(6), 691-697, (1 December 2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2018.75
Received: 9 May 2018; Accepted: 8 August 2018; Published: 1 December 2018
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