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Cousinia sect. Cynaroideae, the largest section of Cousinia with 110 published species, is characterized by a chromosome number of 2n = 24, ± decurrent to spiny-winged leaves and appendaged phyllaries. It is distributed in Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, the Caucasus, Iraq, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan, with centres of specific diversity mainly in W and NW Iran, N Iraq and SE Turkey. A comprehensive treatment of C. sect. Cynaroideae, mainly based on the study of c. 2250 herbarium specimens, resulted in a reduction of taxa number to somewhat more than one third, precisely to 31 species plus eight subspecies. C. lordeganensis is described as a species new to science and the new nomenclatural combinations C. calocephala subsp. astrocephala and subsp. behboudiana, C. kotschyi subsp. khansarica, C. odontolepis subsp. kurdica, C. pergamacea subsp. sardashtensis, C. sagittata subsp. iranica, C. silyboides subsp. disfulensis and subsp. zardkuhensis are validated. All species and subspecies treated are typified. Identification keys, descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps for each species are given.
No comprehensive revision of Micromeria is available and uncertainties about the taxonomy of the genus have lasted for a long time. Since the last synopsis many new data from both morphological and molecular genetic studies have been accumulated and, consequently, the number of accepted taxa and the delimitation of the genus have changed considerably. The authors provide a review of recent and unpublished research on the genus, a new circumscription and description of the genus and an updated distribution map. All published Micromeria names are listed with a reference to their current taxonomic position. Names of taxa currently placed in Micromeria are provided with type citations. A new combination, M. cristata subsp. kosaninii, is validated, along with the new name M. longipedunculata for the illegitimate M. parviflora of Reichenbach. The author standard abbreviation E. F. Chapm. is proposed for one of the authors of M. graeca subsp. cypria and 24 names are typified. Taxonomic problems needing special attention in future research are identified.
Number and geography of its species, which are mostly anecophytic, indicate a noncentred origin and distribution of Bromus s.str. (≡ Bromus sect. Bromus). With some certainty a larger number of its known species have been evolving only since the beginning of the Anthropocene, about 10 000 year ago, promoted by human impact. Another three probably recently originated species are described as new to science, B. parvispiculatus from the Balkan Peninsula, B. incisus with a chromosome number of 2n = 4x = 28 from Central Europe and B. supernovus, a species of dubious provenance only known from the type specimen of a plant cultivated in Australia. The ancestry of B. hordeaceus, B. intermedius and B. secalinus is discussed. Two new combinations, B. intermedius subsp. optimae and B. rechingeri subsp. afghanicus, are validated and a conspectus indicating the known ploidy level and distribution (endemic or indigenous to Europe) of the species of Bromus s.str. is provided.
Populations of an unknown taxon of Gentiana sect. Calathianae have been found in the Brenta Group during floristic surveys. Comparison with morphologically similar taxa (G. terglouensis, G. bavarica, G. orbicularis) revealed that they represent a species new to science, which is described as G. brentae. Data on its ecology and local distribution are reported.
A list of uncommon plants of wet or seasonally moist habitats of Crete is presented (72 vascular plants, 10 bryophytes, 5 charophytes), based on a survey of 50 localities, most of them in western Crete. For each species new records are compiled and precise locality data are given. For most plant occurrences frequency estimates are provided. Recorded here as new to Crete are Anagallis minima, Callitriche brutia, Myosotis sicula, Chiloscyphus polyanthus, Philonotis calcarea, Chara galioides and Nitella tenuissima. Several records are the first of a taxon in one of the four Cretan prefectures. Continuity and change in the species composition of wetlands are discussed based on comparisons with historical records. Cretan wetlands are currently under threat due to over-exploitation of water resources from springs and streams. Especially coastal marshes are critically endangered as a result of the expansion of urban settlements and tourist resorts, through neglect of traditional grazing and cutting, and due to administrative mismanagement and detrimental agricultural practice.
Floristic results mainly of four field trips to Albania in 2007 are presented. The trips touched the surroundings of the towns Vlorë, Gjirokastër and Korçe, the region Dumre as well as Thatë, Vallamarë and Korab Mts. Altogether 24 angiosperm taxa, of which 9 are new for the flora of the country, are reported and discussed. Several taxa of rare or questionable occurrence are confirmed for the country, and taxonomy and distribution are clarified for other taxa. For each taxon also the distribution in the neighbouring countries is given.
Continuing a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to the Med-Checklist project are presented, this instalment deals with the families Ephedraceae; Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Compositae, Cruciferae, Euphorbiaceae, Oxalidaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Verbenaceae; Cyperaceae, Gramineae, Liliaceae and Orchidaceae. It includes new country and area records, taxonomic and distributional considerations. A new combination in Eragrostis is validated.
Aeonium decorum var. alucense and Aichryson laxum var. latipetalum, from eastern La Gomera and southern Tenerife, respectively, are described as varieties new to science and illustrated. New combinations in Aeonium (A. arboreum subsp. holochrysum, A. canariense subsp. christii, A. canariense subsp. latifolium, A. canariense subsp. virgineum, A. lindleyi subsp. viscatum), Aichryson (A. tortuosum var. bethencourtianum) and Monanthes (M. minima subsp. adenoscepes) are validated. M. polyphylla subsp. amydros, thought to be endemic to La Gomera, is also reported for the island of La Palma. Additional descriptive data for M. wildpretii are provided. Special attention is paid to the morphological characteristics that differentiate some closely related taxa.
First records of taxa of Poaceae from the Canary Islands are listed: 11 species and subspecies from La Palma, 4 from Fuerteventura and 2 each from Fuerteventura La Palma and La Palma Tenerife. Included in the list are also first records of some species and subspecies from the individual islands of La Palma, Fuerteventura and Tenerife. Polypogon viridis subsp. pauciflorus is described as a subspecies new to science and the new combination Agrostis stolonifera subsp. filifolia is validated.
Chromosome numbers are reported for 86 taxa belonging to 42 genera of Compositae. 17 reported taxa have not previously been studied cytologically or have chromosome numbers differing from previous reports. Counts for 11 additional taxa are the first reports for North Africa.
Psephellus erzincani and P. recepii from the province of Erzincan in eastern Turkey are described as species new to science and illustrated. Both can be assigned to P. sect. Psephelloidei although the former species differs by the yellowish colour of the flowers and rather inconspicuous marginal flowers. Both are endemic to small areas and must be classified in the IUCN categories Endangered (EN) and Critically Endangered (CR), respectively.
Homalomena vietnamensis from Vietnam is described as a species new to science and illustrated. It belongs to H. sect. Homalomena and differs from other species mainly by having leaf blades with a truncate to obtuse base, a non-constricted, rather thick spathe and a slender, subcylindric staminode in each female flower. A chromosome number of 2n = 38 was counted in root tip mitoses.
Descriptions and figures of five endemic species of Mosiera new to science are provided. M. occidentalis is from W Cuba and M. baracoensis, M. bissei, M. macrophylla and M. yamaniguensis are from E Cuba. A map shows their known distribution.
Magnolia virginiana was reported recently from the Majaguillar marshes in western Cuba. This was the first Cuban record of the species, formerly considered an endemic of the USA. The Majaguillar population of M. virginiana differs in leaf shape and flower features from those of the North American mainland. It is therefore described as a new subspecies, M. virginiana subsp. oviedoae.