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17 July 2020 Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 12
Eckhard von Raab-Straube, Thomas Raus
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

This is the twelfth of a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to both the Med-Checklist and the Euro+Med (or Sisyphus) projects are presented. This instalment deals with the families Asparagaceae (incl. Hyacinthaceae), Boraginaceae, Cactaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gramineae, Haloragaceae, Iridaceae, Labiatae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Orobanchaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Scrophulariaceae (incl. Buddlejaceae), Solanaceae and Umbelliferae. It includes new country and area records and taxonomic and distributional considerations for taxa in Abutilon, Aegilops, Amelanchier, Andryala, Aruncus, Asparagus, Bellevalia, Brugmansia, Buglossoides, Bupleurum, Cortaderia, Crassula, Datura, Dysphania, Euphorbia, Fallopia, Iris, Lycianthes, Myriophyllum, Nicodemia, Onobrychis, Ophrys, Opuntia, Orobanche, Phelipanche, Plumbago, Salvia, Silene, Stellaria and Wisteria, and new combinations in Amelanchier and Phelipanche.

Citation

For the whole article:

Raab-Straube E. von & Raus Th. (ed.) 2020: Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 12 [Notulae ad floram euro-mediterraneam pertinentes No. 41]. – Willdenowia 50: 305–341.

For a single contribution (example):

Meyer S. & Bazos I. 2020: Bellevalia speciosa Woronow ex Grossh. – Pp. 307–308 in: Raab-Straube E. von & Raus Th. (ed.), Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 12 [Notulae ad floram euro-mediterraneam pertinentes No. 41]. – Willdenowia 50: 305–341.

Version of record first published online on 17 July 2020 ahead of inclusion in August 2020 issue.

Notice

A succinct description of the Euro+Med project, with a list of recognized territories and their abbreviations, and the conventions used to indicate the status and presence of taxa, can be found in the introduction to the first instalment of the Euro+Med Notulae (Greuter & Raab-Straube 2005: 223–226) and on the Euro+Med PlantBase website (Euro+Med 2006+). For the previous instalment of the Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, see Raab-Straube & Raus (2019).

Contributors

Z. Baumwol, Birmont Medical Group, 11/44 Kadish Luz st., Kiryat Motzkin 2640306, Israel; e-mail: zalmanpen1@gmail.com

I. Bazos, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Athens, Greece; e-mail: ibazos@biol.uoa.gr

R. Böcker, Institut für Landschafts- und Pflanzenökologie der Universität Hohenheim, August-von-Hartmann-Straße 3, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany; e-mail: reinhard.boecker@uni-hohenheim.de

S. Bogdanović, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Botany, Herbarium ZAGR, Svetošimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia; e-mail: sbogdanovic@agr.hr

M. Bou Dagher Kharrat, Laboratoire Biodiversité et Génomique Fonctionnelle, Faculté des Sciences, Université Saint-Joseph, Campus Sciences et Technologies, Mar Roukos, Mkalles, BP: 1514 Riad el Solh, Beirut 1107 2050, Lebanon; e-mail: magda.boudagher@usj.edu.lb

M. Chasapis, Forest Office of Aridaia, Xenitidi & Ermou str. 5, 58400 Aridaia, Greece; e-mail: minxas1@gmail.com

S. S. Cohen, Birmont Medical Group, 8 Enzo Sereni, Haifa 3297208, Israel; e-mail: nycthantes@icloud.com

D. De Beer, Blancefloerlaan 15, 2050 Antwerpen, Belgium; e-mail: dirk.debeer@telenet.be

G. De Bélair, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 512, 23000 Annaba, Algeria; e-mail: debelairg@yahoo.com

G. Domina, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Bldg. 4, 90128 Palermo, Italy; e-mail: gianniantonio.domina@unipa.it

R. El Mokni, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences “A”, Laboratory of Botany, Cryptogamy and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy of Monastir, BP. No. 207, Avenue Avicenne, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia; e-mail: riridah@hotmail.com

E. Eleftheriadou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Environment, School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Laboratory of Forest Botany/Geobotany, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece; e-mail: eelefthe@for.auth.gr

A. V. Fateryga, T. I. Vyazemsky Karadag Scientific Station, Nature Reserve of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Branch of A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Nauki Str. 24, Kurortnoye, Feodosiya 298188, Crimea; e-mail: fater_84@list.ru

R. Fekete, Department of Botany, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary; e-mail: feketereka722@gmail.com

M. Z. Ferreira, Madeira Botany Group, University of Madeira, Campus Universitário da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal; e-mail: mzitaferreira @sapo.pt

A. Fridlender, Faculté des Sciences, Département Pluridisciplinaire, Université AMU, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13003 Marseille cedex 03, France; e-mail: alain.fridlender@univ-amu.fr

E. Gubler, Via Johannes Badrutt 7, 7500 St. Moritz, Switzerland; e-mail: ernst-gubler@bluewin.ch

M. Harásek, Department of Botany and Zoology of Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic; e-mail: harasek1993@gmail.com

P. Hein, Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: p.hein@bgbm.org

D. Iamonico, Department of Biology, Botany Unit, University of Pisa, Via Luca Ghini 13, 56126 Pisa, Italy; e-mail: d.iamonico@yahoo.it

N. Jogan, Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; e-mail: nejc.jogan@bf.uni-lj.sl

V. Kalníková, Department of Botany and Zoology of Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic & Beskydy Protected Landscape Area Administration, Nádražní 36, 756 61, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Republic; e-mail: v.kalnikova@seznam.cz

N. Korotkova, Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: n.korotkova@bgbm.org

V. Kummer, Universität Potsdam, Institut für Biochemie und Biologie, Biodiverstätsforschung/Spezielle Botanik, Maulbeerallee 1, 14469 Potsdam, Germany; e-mail: kummer@uni-potsdam.de

N. Kuzmanović, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia; e-mail: nkuzmanovic@bio.bg.ac.rs

V. Löki, Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Tisza Research, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Bem tér 18/C, 4026 Debrecen, Hungary; e-mail: lokvi89@gmail.com

S. Maslo, Primary School, Lundåkerskola, Gislaved, Sweden; e-mail: semmas@edu.gislaved.se

V. Matevski, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia; e-mail: vlado.matevski@manu.edu.mk

S. Meyer, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Albrecht-von-Haller Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Ökologie und Ökologieforschung, Untere Karspüle 2, 37075 Göttingen, Germany; e-mail: smeyer1@gwdg.de

A. Molnár V., Department of Botany, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary; e-mail: mva@science.unideb.hu

R. A. Murtazaliev, Mountain Botanical Garden of the Dagestan Federal Research Center of the RAS, M. Gadjiev str. 45, Makhachkala 367000, Russia; e-mail: murtazaliev.ra@yandex.ru

M. Niketić, Natural History Museum Belgrade, Njegoševa 51, 11000 Beograd, Serbia; e-mail: mniketic@nhmbeo.rs

P. Novák, Department of Botany and Zoology of Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic; e-mail: pavenow@seznam.cz

G. Parolly, Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: g.parolly@bgbm.org

A. V. Popovich, Environmental Commission, Krasnodar Regional Branch of the Russian Geographical Society, Lenina Str. 103/64, Krasnodar 350033, Russia; e-mail: popovitch.antonio220386@yandex.ru

E. von Raab-Straube, Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: e.raab-straube@bgbm.org

S. Rätzel, Georg-Friedrich-Händel-Straße 13, 15234 Frankfurt an der Oder, Germany; e-mail: stefan.raetzel@googlemail.com

Th. Raus, Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: t.raus@bgbm.org

M. Ristow, University of Potsdam, Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation, Am Mühlenberg 3, 14476 Potsdam, Germany; e-mail: ristow@uni-potsdam.de

L. E. Ryff, Flora and Vegetation Laboratory, Nikitsky Botanical Garden – National Scientific Centre, Yalta, Crimea; e-mail: ryffljub@ukr.net

A. Saci, Conservation of the forests of the wilaya of Skikda, Bouabaz City-Skikda, 21000 Skikda, Algeria; e-mail: amarsaci21@gmail.com

D. A. Samaras, Department of Forestry, Wood Science and Design, University of Thessaly, V. Griva 11, 43100 Karditsa, Greece; e-mail: dsamar@uth.gr

M. Sequeira, Madeira Botany Group, University of Madeira, Campus Universitário da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal; e-mail: sequeira@uma.pt

D. Shilnikov, Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Eco-botanical station Pyatigorsk, Russia; e-mail: demons2002@yandex.ru

J. Stephan, Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences II, Fanar, Lebanon; e-mail: dr.jeanstephan@gmail.com

D. Stešević, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Džordža Vašingtona bb, Podgorica 81 000, Montenegro; e-mail: danijela.stesevic@ucg.ac.me

A. Stinca, Department of Environmental Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100, Caserta, Italy; e-mail: adriano.stinca@unina.it

S. Stoyanov, Department of Plant and Fungal Diversity and Resources, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl. 23, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria; e-mail: tjankata@abv.bg

A. Strid, Bakkevej 6, 5853 Ørbæk, Denmark; e-mail: arne.strid@youmail.dk

S. A. Svirin, City Development Institute, Sevastopol State University, Universitetskaya str. 33, Sevastopol 299053, Crimea; e-mail: sapsan7@mail.ru

A. A. Taleb, Faculty of Agronomy, Lebanese University, P.O. Box 6573/14 Badaro, Museum, Beirut, Lebanon; e-mail: ali.talebakkar@gmail.com

K. A. Taleb, Akkar Trail group, main road, 1st floor, Meshmesh Akkar, Lebanon; e-mail: akkartrail@gmail.com

K. Theodoropoulos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Environment, School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Laboratory of Forest Botany/Geobotany, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece; e-mail: ktheodor@for.auth.gr

H. Uhlich, Gartenstraße 19, 56357 Welterod, Germany; e-mail: uhlich.holger@googlemail.com

Y. Ur, 106 Moshav Amnoon, 1293500, Israel; e-mail: yairur@013.net

F. Verloove, Meise Botanic Garden, Nieuwelaan 38, 1860 Meise, Belgium; e-mail: filip.verloove@botanicgardenmeise.be

B. Wallnöfer, Naturhistorisches Museum, Botanische Abteilung, Burgring 7, 1010 Wien, Austria; e-mail: bruno.wallnoefer@nhm-wien.ac.at

E. Zippel, Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: e.zippel@bgbm.org

D. Zukal, Department of Botany and Zoology of Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic; e-mail: dominikzukal@gmail.com

Asparagaceae (incl. Hyacinthaceae)

Asparagus aethiopicus L. (≡ Asparagopsis aethiopica (L.) Kunth = Asparagus sprengeri Regel)

A Ga(F): France: Marseille, along Rue Caisserie, ?43°17′49.82″N, 05°22′6.12″E, 14 m, between cracks, 25 Jul 2017, Stinca (PORUN-herb. Stinca). – Asparagus aethiopicus is a perennial herb or shrub native to South Africa that is frequently grown as outdoor ornamental plant in the Mediterranean region. In this area it sometimes escapes from gardens by seed dispersal. In the Euro+Med area it has been recorded from Mallorca (Sáez & al. 2016), Sardinia, Sicily and Italy (Galasso & al. 2018), often as an epiphytic plant (Stinca & al. 2013). Some individuals were observed in a ruderal environment in the urbanized area of Marseille, near the port.

A. Stinca

Bellevalia speciosa Woronow ex Grossh.Fig. 1.

+ AE(G): Greece: East Aegean Islands, Nomos of Lesvos, Eparchia of Mitilini, Lesvos island, above Vrisa in locality called Agia Anna, 39°02′43″N, 26°13′32″E, 250 m, clearings in Pinus brutia Ten. forest, olive groves and uncultivated land, 16 Apr 1995, Bazos 2218 (ATHU); ibid., between Agios Pavlos and Skamioudi, 39°07′44″N, 26°13′23″E, 8 m, two individuals in a barley field with deep soil together with Echinophora tenuifolia L., Leontice leonto-petalum L. and Muscari como-sum (L.) Mill., 22 Apr 2019, Meyer (ATHU). – This is a new record for the East Aegean Islands and Greece as a whole. The currently known distribution of the species includes Transcaucasia and N Iran, the Pontic region (Romania, Ukraine, S Russia) and Turkey (Wendelbo 1984). The occurrence of the species on Lesvos is presumably an outpost of populations in the NW part of Turkey (Çanakkale, Istanbul, Izmir; Wendelbo 1984; Özhatay & al. 1991). The species was already found on Lesvos and reported with uncertainty under its younger synonym Bellevalia sarmatica (Pall.) Miscz. (Bazos 2005), but, because of the uncertainty, was not taken into account by Dimopoulos & al. (2013, 2016) and Strid (2016a, 2016b). An old record of B. ciliata (Cirillo) T. Nees by Candargy (1898) probably refers to B. speciosa as well, because, according to Wendelbo (1984: 270), the name B. ciliata has been misapplied to plants of B. sarmatica from NW Turkey. The two localities of B. speciosa recorded on Les- vos are approximately 10 km apart. Bellevalia edirnensis Özhatay & B. Mathew, which was described from the Edirne area in European Turkey (Özhatay & al. 1991; Dayhan & al. 2013) and has subsequently been found also on the Greek side of the border (Bareka & al. 2008), is somewhat similar but has much shorter fruiting pedicels.

S. Meyer & I. Bazos

Fig. 1.

Bellevalia speciosa, flowering plant in habitat. – Greece: Lesvos island, between Agios Pavlos and Skamioudi, 22 Apr 2019, photograph by S. Meyer.

img-z4-2_305.jpg

Boraginaceae

Buglossoides incrassata subsp. splitgerberi (Guss.) E. Zippel & Selvi

+ Al: Albania: Nord-Albanien, Luma, buschige Hänge der Skoza-Schlucht bei Dzuri, 500 m, 29 May 1918, Dörfler 548 (WU). – The taxon has not so far been reported with certainty from Albania. Previous literature records of Lithospermum arvense subsp. gasparinii (Guss.) Laínz from Albania (Qosja & Paparisto 1996: 85; Vangjeli 2015: 327; Pils 2016: 52, sub Buglossoides incrassata subsp. sibthorpiana nom. nud.) might potentially refer to B. incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, but they remain unidentifiable and therefore cannot be evaluated for mapping purposes.

+ Ar: Armenia: Talin district, 1620 m, 21 Jun 2002, Fayvush & al. (WU 2005-11451); ibid., Lori province, 1390 m, 29 Jun 2003, Fayvush & al. (WU); ibid., Sjunik province, 1900–2300 m, 22 Jun 2004, Fayvush & al. 04-1194 (WU 2004-01200); ibid., Sjunik province, 2539 m, 23 June 2004, Fayvush & al. 04-1417 (WU 2006-05733); ibid., Vayots Dzor province, 1630 m, 16 May 2006, Fayvush & al. 06-0200 (WU 2006-08951); ibid., Gegharkinik province, NE of lake Sevan, N of Tchambarak, road from Ttujur to Berd, between Ttujur and Miapor pass, 1890 m, 28 May 2006, Vitek 06-0524 (WU 2010-09869); ibid., Tavush province, 820 m, 31 May 2006, Oganesian & al. 06-0939 (WU 2010-09291); ibid., Aragatsotn province, area N of Aparan, beside road Melikyugh, 2090 m, 4 Jun 2006, Vitek 06-1117 (WU); ibid., Aragatsotn province, area N of Aparan, valley c. 2.5 km E of Melikyugh, 2240 m, 4 Jun 2006, Vitek 06-1109 (WU 2010-09494); ibid., Kotayk province, 1970 m, 6 Jun 2006, Vitek 06-1238 (WU 2010-09438); ibid., E of Yerevan, in Geghard village, 1920 m, 18 Jun 2007, Tamanyan, Oganesian & Vitek 07-0784 (WU). – These are the first records of the taxon for Armenia.

+ Bu: Bulgaria: bei Radomir, 23 Mar 1905, Urumoff (WU 3879); ibid., Slavjanka mt., Paril, Goce Delcev, dry meadow, 6 Jun 1980, Kuzmanov BK-80474 (B); ibid., Bulharsko, Sozopol, Akutino, 3 m, in arenosis supra mare, 9 May 1993, Grulich & al. (BRNU 534257); ibid., ad Parlovo, 10 May 1912, Urimov (BRNU 147740). – The taxon has not previously been reported from Bulgaria.

+ Ct: Croatia: Spalato, nächst dem Fort Grippi, auf einer Weinbergsbrache, 25 Jun 1927, Korb (WU); ibid., Draganički, Goljak, 26 Apr 1951, Serjan (ZA); ibid., Zrmanja, Getreidefeld, 5 Apr 1890, Rossi 6052 (ZA); ibid., Istrien, Gebiet des Monte Maggiore, 130 m, Äcker und Brachen, 28 May 1909, Ginzberger (WU). – The taxon has not previously been reported from Croatia.

+ Fe: Finland: Prov. Tavastia australis, Pohjois-Pirkkala, ratapenger [railway bank], 2 Jul 1933, Rydman (TMP); ibid., Kulovesi, radan varsi [railway side], 8 Jul 1935, Haapanen (TMP D673); ibid., Tampere, Lielahti, kuiva rinne [dry slope], 27 May 1937, Setälä (TMP); ibid., Åland, Sund, Kastelholm, linnan takana vallilla [behind castle on rampart], 24 May 1952, Saransaari (TMP D1054); ibid., Nokia, Haavisto, rautatien varsi [railway side], 12 Jun 1952, Helin (TMP); ibid., Nokia, SOK:n myllyalue [area of SOK company's mill], 23 Jul 1966, Kääntönen (TMP D670); ibid., Tampere, Lielahden asema, ratapenger [Lielahti railway station, railway bank], 4 Aug 1968, Kääntönen (TMP); ibid., Prov. Alandia, Maarianhamina, Espholm, pellon reuna [field margin], 5 Jul 1967, Lyly (TMP); ibid., Saltvik, Ödkarby, Haga Kungsgårdin SW, puolella vehnäpellon laidalla, runsaasti [margin of wheat field, abundant], una cum [with] Al-lium oleraceum L., Centaurea cyanus L. [and] Veronica arvensis L., 25 Jul 1990, Lahtonen 102 (TMP D963). – The taxon has not previously been reported with certainty from Finland. Literature records of Lithospermum arvense subsp. coerulecens DC., mapped by Mossberg & Stenberg (2018: 688) for Scandinavia including Finland, may refer to B. incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, but remain questionable unless substantiated by revised herbarium material.

+ Gg(G): Georgia: Transcaucasia, Tiflis, in faucibus fl. Dabachanka, 18 Apr 1924, Grossheim (BRNU 94800). – First record of the taxon from Georgia.

+ He: Switzerland: Basel, zwischen Bottningen und Batterie, 7 May 1942, Tschopp (BASBG); ibid., Graubünden, Puschlav, Resena, Mauerkronen, 1080 m, 27 Jun 1972, Eckardt 2469 (B); ibid., Wallis, Mattertal, Grächen, 1400–1600, Wegrand, 4 Jul 2001, Ristow 262/01 (herb. Ristow); ibid., Wallis, Vispertimen, Acker, 4 Aug 2001, Zippel & Waldis 01-209.1 (BSB); ibid., 4 Aug 2001, Zippel & Waldis 01-209.2 (BSB). – The taxon has not previously been published for Switzerland. An old literature record of Lithospermum arvense subsp. coerulecens DC. from Wallis/ Valais (Schmid & Gams 1927: 2159) refers possibly to B. incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, but remains questionable unless substantiated by revised herbarium material.

+ Ho: Netherlands: Siebengewald, 26 May 1997, Reijerse 97063 (BSB). – The taxon has not previously been reported from the Netherlands.

+ Hs(S): Spain: Sierra Nevada, 24 km N Granada, 1720 m, Weizen, 28 May 1936, Huber-Morat 3335 (BASB); ibid., Huesca, Puntón de Guara, Gottesacker, 1980 m, 11 Jul 1974, Montserrat 3884/74 (BASBG); ibid., zwischen Motril und Granada nördlich der Abzweigung nach Lanjaron, 23 May 1981, Hübl & Holzner (W). – The taxon has not previously been reported with certainty from Spain. Pastor (2012: 381), although commenting on Buglossoides incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, does not authenticate verified populations in the Flora iberica area; the pertinent drawing, captioned B. incrassata subsp. incrassata (Pastor 2012: 380), depicts in fact B. arvensis.

+ Hu: Hungary: Csepelinsel bei Budapest, 12 May 1906, Janchen (WU); ibid., Comit[atus]. Pest, Òkuti völgy supra oppidum Szentendre, c. 200 m, in agris vallis, 29 Apr 1952, Kárpáti & Baráth (WHB 188633); ibid., Umgebung von Budapest, Blockberg-Csepelinsel, May 1888, Wettstein (WU). – The taxon has not previously been reported from Hungary.

+ Mk: North Macedonia: Galicitza, Jul 1908, Dimonie (WHB 2007-02384). – This is the first record of the taxon from North Macedonia.

+ Po: Poland: Silesia, Biała Prudnicka, field, 30 Jun 1961, Stojanowska (B); ibid., Grünberg (Zielona Góra), bei Nittritz, 16 May 1892, Schroeder (B). – No previous published records of the taxon are known from Poland.

+ Rm: Romania: Geoagin, Hunedoava, 9 May 1964, Slanovschi (IASI); ibid., Adjud, Vrancea, posune, 13 May 1965, Popanikai (IASI); ibid., Lebatiste Codresti (V Vasheretalui), 1 Jun 1968, Zinasj (IASI 80546); ibid., Tg Oena, 27 May 1969, Chifu & Stefan (IASI 94358); ibid., Vasliu, Ackerbrache, 16 May 1973, Dobrescu (IASI). – These are the first verified records of the taxon from Romania.

+ Se: Serbia: Pirot, mte Graiste, 21 May 1888, Bornmüller (B); ibid., in arvis ad Vranja, May 1895, Aderc (WHB). – These are the first verified records of the taxon from Serbia.

+ Sk: Slovakia: Slovakia merid[ionalis]., distr. Štúrovo, in declivibus silvatico-stepposis Skály dictis supra station[em] viae ferrat[ae]. Kamenica nad Hronom, 250 m, 19 May 1962, Smejkal (BRNU 410725); ibid., distr. Lučenec, in declivib[us]. septentr[ionalis]. collis Hyalos (cota 317) prope pagum Fil'akovske Kl'ačany, 260 m, in pascuis, 1 Jun 1965, Smejkal (BRNU 421038); ibid., Devinsaka, Kobyla, Devín, ruderal, 11 May 1994, Ferráková (B); ibid., Senica, Moravský Ján, Borové, ostrůvek vátých písků v nivenĕ Moravy 5 km jz obce, 15 May 1994, Grulich (BRNU 534983). – The taxon has not previously been reported from Slovakia.

+ Su: Sweden: Uppland, Danmark, 22 Jun 1905, Svens-son (BSB); ibid., Halland, Akrav, 5 Jun 1921, Acker, Svenson (BASBG); ibid., Öland, Runsten, 24 May 1897, Arescog (B); ibid., Falun, Upland, Vigelsbo, 5 Jul 1893, Fröman (WU). – The taxon has not previously been reported with certainty from Sweden. Literature records of Lithospermum arvense subsp. coerulecens DC. from Scandinavia (e.g. Hylander 1945: 261), later mapped by Mossberg & Stenberg (2018: 688) for the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, might refer to B. incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, but remain questionable unless substantiated by revised herbarium material.

+ Tu(A), Tu(E): Anatolia: Burdur, macchie, 17 Apr 1985, Nydegger 40250 (BASBG); ibid., Antalya, Campus University Akdeniz, ruderal, 7 Apr 1998, Even 50.3 (B). – Turkey-in-Europe: Umgebung von Konstantinopel, San Stefano, 6 Apr 1895, Nemetz (WU 2001-12328). – No previous published records of the taxon are known from Turkey.

+ Uk: Ukraine: Prov. Ternopil, Tornopolis, field, 9 May 1993, Kagalo & Sytschak 04707 (B); ibid., Prov. Kiew, in agris pr. urb. Uman, 30 May 1900, Jenko-Darowsky (WU); ibid., Galizien, Umgebung von Lemberg, c. 1860, collector unknown (WU 2001-13501). – These are the first verified records of the taxon from Ukraine.

The distribution of this taxonomically and floristically largely neglected taxon, chiefly growing in seminatural xerothermous meadows and similar habitats as well as in grain fields like Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I. M. Johnst. (Zippel & Wilhalm 2003), is only very fragmentarily documented in the Euro+Med PlantBase, with area records merely for Germany, Italy, Sicily and Corsica (Valdés 2011+a). There are, however, published records of Buglossoides incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, partly under various synonyms, from additional parts of Europe and the Mediterranean such as continental France (Tison & de Fourcault 2014: 546), Austria (Fischer & al. 2008: 691, as B. incrassata subsp. leithneri (Heldr.) E. Zippel & A. Clermont, nom. inval.), the Czech Republic (Danihelka & al. 2012: 682; Kaplan 2019: 808), continental Greece (Willing & Willing 2012: 69, Willing 2020: 67), and Cyprus (Hand & al. 2011+). Although its locus classicus is situated in Sicily (Alcamo, province of Trapani, according to Selvi & Cecchi 2009: 624), the taxon is neither endemic to Italy (as incorrectly stated by Bartolucci & al. 2018: 249) nor confined to the Euro+Med area (as actually indicated by Valdés 2011+a). Verified specimens of B. incrassata subsp. splitgerberi have been seen from Iran (Urumiak ad rivi Scher Tschai ripas, 2 Jul 1884, Knapp, WU), Kazakhstan (Semipalatinsk, 28 Mar 1905, Kossinsky 352, BRNU 95137), Pakistan (Islamabad, 28 Feb 1992, Tahir, WU) and Turkmenistan (Aschabad, in montibus supra pagum Nephon, 13 Apr 1900, Sintenis 104, WU). Further records, even though with unclear status, are from Japan (Matsushima, 30 Jul 1897, Faurie 680, WU) and as a neophyte from the U.S.A. (Illinois, 29 Apr 1978, Mühlenbach & Boufford, B). All specimens cited have been revised and determined by E. Zippel (Berlin).

E. Zippel & Th. Raus

Cactaceae

Opuntia dejecta Salm-Dyck (≡ Nopalea dejecta (Salm-Dyck) Salm-Dyck) – Fig. 2.

A Ag: Algeria: Skikda, Beni Bechir, 36°4638″N, 07°00′38″E, 230 m, close to a hedge of Par- thenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch., 26 Apr 2020, Saci (photos). – A xenophyte probably native to Panama, Opuntia dejecta is very common in cultivation in tropical America (Britton & Rose 1919). The species is new to Algeria, reported for the second time for N Africa (El Mokni & al. 2020; APD 2020) and for the fourth time for the Mediterranean area, where so far it has been reported as naturalized in Italy (Celesti-Grapow & al. 2009, as Nopalea dejecta) and Sicily (Korotkova & Raab-Straube 2017+) and as casual in Tunisia (El Mokni & al. 2020). In Algeria, O. dejecta is obviously a recent escape and can be classified only as casual. However, like other species within this genus, it certainly has the potential to spread to nearby regions.

R. El Mokni & A. Saci

Fig. 2.

Opuntia dejecta – A: habit of flowering plant; B: detail of flowers showing typical red tepals. – Algeria: Skikda, Beni Bechir, 26 Apr 2020, photographs by A. Saci.

img-z7-1_305.jpg

Caryophyllaceae

Silene lydia Boiss. (≡ Conosilene conica subsp. lydia (Boiss.) Á. Löve & Kjellq. ≡ Pleconax lydia (Boiss.) Šourková). – According to Euro+Med PlantBase (Marhold 2011+a), Silene lydia (S. sect. Conoimorpha Otth) would currently occur in most of the Balkan countries, in European Turkey and in SW Asia (Asia Minor, Lebanon and Syria). The alleged occurrence in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia was given by Greuter & al. (1984) and Chater & al. (1993) and reported in Euro+Med PlantBase (2006+) as “Former Yugoslavia”, all based on misinterpretation of the imprecise “Ma” (for Macedonia) in Hayek (1924: 260). Jalas & Suominen (1988), however, correctly indicated S. lydia in Bulgaria, Greece, and European Turkey only. Hayek (1924: 259–260) recorded the species from “Macedonia, inclusa Chalcidice et insula Thaso” (abbreviated as “Ma”; see Hayek 1927: v), thus referring to the Chalkidiki peninsula and the island of Thasos which are now part of Greece and, respectively, the administrative regions of Central Macedonia and Eastern Macedonia-Thrace. Trinajstić & Pavletić (1979), in their treatment of Silene for Analitička flora Jugoslavije, recorded S. lydia only as doubtfully present for the Republic of North Macedonia.

As part of currently ongoing studies on Caryophyllaceae (see, e.g., Iamonico 2018) and specifically on Silene sect. Conoimorpha, neither herbarium specimens nor published sources of S. lydia could be verified from the countries listed below. Therefore, S. lydia has to be excluded from the following Balkan countries.

D. Iamonico & E. von Raab-Straube

– BH: No record of Silene lydia was reported by Beck (1907).

D. Iamonico & S. Maslo

– Cg: No record of Silene lydia was reported by Rohlena (1942) and Stešević & Caković (2013).

D. Iamonico & D. Stešević

– Ct: No record of Silene lydia was reported by Nikolić (2019) and Nikolić (2020).

D. Iamonico & S. Bogdanović

– Mk: Silene lydia was recorded in North Macedonia in Bitola (Velenovský 1911) and Prilep-Dobrushevo (Stojanoff 1928). According to Micevski (1993), as well as from recent field investigations, these data have not been confirmed, and we think that this species has probably been confused with S. conica L.

V. Matevski, D. Iamonico & E. von Raab-Straube

– Sl: No record of Silene lydia was reported by Mayer (1952), Martinčič & Sušnik (1969), Martinčič & al. (1999) and Jogan & al. (2001).

D. Iamonico & N. Jogan

– Sr: No record of Silene lydia was reported by Slavnić (1970) and Niketić (2012).

D. Iamonico, M. Niketić & N. Kuzmanović

Stellaria ruderalis M. Lepší & al.

+ AE(G), Cr: Greece, East Aegean Islands: Nomos of Lesvos, Eparchia of Mitilini, Lesvos island, Agia Marina village, along road to north, 39°04′N, 26°35′E, 100–200 m, olive grove and stone fences, 28 Mar 1994, Nielsen & Skovgaard 9230 (B, under Stellaria media; det. A. Strid); ibid., Nomos of Dodekanisos, Eparchia of Rodos, Rodos island, Stegna, 36°12′39.3″N, 28°08′27.6″E, 3 m, ruderal floodplain c. 200 m distant from the harbour, 18 Mar 2010, Peter & Ristow RH3-26 (B, as S. media; det. A. Strid). Cretan area: Kriti island, Nomos of Chania, Eparchia of Kissamos, between Kambos and Keramoti, 35°23′01″N, 23°33′56″E, 370–380 m, ruderal places dominated by Geranium molle L., semi-shaded by Platanus orientalis L., slightly condensed acid soil on schistose substrate, 13 Mar 1998, Böhling 7065 (B, as S. media; det. A. Strid); ibid., Nomos of Lasithi, Eparchia of Ierapetra, Thripti, 35°04′54″N, 25°51′22″E, 700 m, weedy vineyard with Oxalis pes-caprae L., Poa in-firma Kunth and Urtica urens L. on dolomitic substrate, 24 Mar 1998, Böhling & Raus 7219 (B, as S. media; det. A. Strid); ibid., 700 m, abandoned, formerly irrigated vegetable field under Platanus trees on dolomitic substrate, 24 Mar 1998, Böhling & Raus 7220 (B, as S. media; det. A. Strid); ibid., Eparchia of Lasithi, Lasithi plain SE of Kristallenia monastery, 35°10′44.6″N, 25°30′14.7″E, 840 m, fields and orchards with traditional agriculture, Bareka & Turland sub Turland 1072 (B, as S. media; det. A. Strid; duplicates, not examined, in BM, MO, UPA). – Only recently Lepši & al. (2019) unveiled that the name Stellaria media, as traditionally in current use at species rank (i.e. excl. S. apetala Ucria, S. cupaniana (Jord. & Fourr.) Bég. and S. neglecta Weihe), covers in fact another two separate species, viz. S. media (L.) Vill. (s. str.) and S. ruderalis M. Lepši & al., the latter presumably of hybridogenous origin between S. apetala (= S. pallida (Dumort.) Crép.; see IPNI 2012+; Dimopoulos & al. 2013: 248; Buttler & al. 2018) and S. neglecta; for morphological, karyological, molecular, ecological and chorological details see Lepši & al. (loc. cit.). Stellaria ruderalis is probably a hitherto overlooked, widespread species, the distribution of which is not yet completely known, especially in S Europe. In its terra typica, the Czech Republic, it is currently spreading along roads, railways and rivers. Outside this country, Lepši & al. (2019: 412, 418–420) identified herbarium material of S. ruderalis from Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, continental Greece (Thessaly) and Italy including Sardinia. The species also occurs in the East Aegean Islands and the Cretan area of Greece, substantiated by re-determined herbarium specimens hitherto stored at B under “S. media” (and mapped under that name in Strid 2016b: 330, map 1287). Only a fraction of the vast holdings of Greek specimens of the Stellaria media group at B have been critically examined. Ripe seeds are needed for positive identification. Stellaria ruderalis may well turn out to be at least as common as S. media s. str. The Greek holdings at LD have been examined by T. Tyler, who found that S. ruderalis is fairly widespread on the Aegean islands.

A. Strid & Th. Raus

Chenopodiaceae

Dysphania pumilio (R. Br.) Mosyakin & Clemants (≡ Chenopodium pumilio R. Br.)

A Gg(G): Georgia: Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, Matkhoji, 42°23′21.2″N, 42°26′35.54″E, c. 200 m, trampled site around church below Matkhoji nunnery, c. 100 plants, 23 Jul 2019, Novák (photo); ibid., Mestia, 43°02′38″N, 42°43′30.1″E, 1400 m, gaps between pavement stones of sidewalk around central town square, c. 20 plants, 19 Jul 2016, Novák (photo); ibid., trampled site with annual vegetation next to road close to Mulkhura bridge, 43°02′30.7″N, 42°43′40.7″E, c. 1390 m, dense monospecific patch covering c. 10 m2, 19 Jul 2019, Novák (photo); ibid., Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Achara, 42°33′34.5″N, 42°51′22.1″E, c. 490 m, c. 50 plants in trampled site with annual vegetation next to main road in centre of village, 8 Jul 2017, Novák (BRNU). – Dysphania pumilio is an annual or short-lived perennial plant. It usually inhabits various open annual vegetation, including sidewalks, road edges, etc. It originates from Australia and was introduced mainly with wool shipments across New Zealand, New Caledonia, North and South America and Europe (Lhotská & Hejný 1979). In the Euro+Med PlantBase (Uotila 2011+), it is reported mostly from W, C and S Europe, including the Balkan Peninsula. Nevertheless, it has not been recorded in Transcaucasia although it was reported from N Iran as well (Rahiminejad & al. 2004). Currently, it is spreading across Europe mainly by hemerochory. Epichory mediated by sheep or humans was also described (Lhotská & Hejný 1979). The finding of the large population in Mestia may indicate its future spreading across Transcaucasia. In Mestia, it was observed in a therophyte-rich trampled vegetation (Polygono-Poetea annuae). In Matkhoji, it occurred in an open vegetation dominated by a species of Digitaria, an annual C4 grass (Digitario sanguinalis-Eragrostietea minoris). In Achara, it grew in a species-rich annual vegetation (Sisymbrietea) dominated by tall herbs (Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. and Xanthium spinosum L.).

P. Novák & V. Kalníková

Compositae (Asteraceae)

Andryala dentata Sm. (≡ A. rothia subsp. dentata (Sm.) Pignatti ≡ A. sinuata subsp. dentata (Sm.) Arcang.)

A Sy: Northern Golan Heights: c. 3 km E of Merom Golan, 33°07′56.2″N, 35°48′44.4″E, 945 m, on grumusol (formed from weathering of limestone and volcanic tuff) mixed with allochthonous substrate from the construction of a reservoir and its surrounding dike, population of more than 70 individuals, 19 Apr 2018, Ur (HUJ, deposited on 20 Aug 2018). – Andryala dentata is a C & NE Mediterranean species, occurring in S Italy (comprising Sicily and Pantelleria), S & E Greece (including islands), W Turkey and Lebanon (Greuter 2006+). It is an annual herb; stems 8–28 cm; cauline leaves sessile, margin dentate; inflorescence corymbiform; capitula 8–14 mm in diam.; involucre slightly stellate tomentose with glandular trichomes, external involucral bracts involute, enfolding a floret, purplish at apex; receptacle with short setae 0.4–2 mm long; ligules pale yellow, external ones often reddish on outer face, slightly exceeding involucral bracts. Arcangeli (1882: 447) recognized A. dentata Sm. as a subspecies of A. sinuata L. (i.e. A. integrifolia L.). Several other authors (e.g. Matthews 1975; Sell 1976; Mouterde 1983) have treated A. dentata as a plain synonym of the widespread A. integrifolia. However, recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies supported the separation of these two taxa as distinct species (Ferreira & al. 2015). Andryala dentata is here reported for the first time from the Golan area with the status of a casual alien, possibly introduced through allochthonous soil material. The species has been known to occur in Lebanon and Syria since the late 19th century (Boissier 1875: 880; Post 1896: 484; followed by Mouterde 1983: 544; Tohmé & Tohmé 2007: 49, as A. integrifolia). Nonetheless, it is considered doubtfully native in that area (Greuter 2008: 19).

M. Z. Ferreira, M. Sequeira, Y. Ur, S. S. Cohen & Z. Baumwol

Crassulaceae

Crassula alata (Viv.) A. Berger

N Bl(M): Spain, Balearic Islands, Mallorca: Santanyi, Mondragó Parque Natural, bank of Torrent de ses Coves del Rei near the mouth, 39°21′17.39″N, 03°11′18.72″E, 17 m, salt marsh area on brackish sand, 19 Apr 2017, De Beer (BR 0000027274743V). – Crassula alata is a poorly known species that was initially described from Egypt and was subsequently also found from the Middle East to India. In Europe it was discovered relatively recently, first from the Greek islands of Kriti and the Kyklades (Webb & Akeroyd 1993). In the Euro+Med area it has been reported so far from Egypt, Libya and Morocco, Israel-Jordan and Lebanon-Syria, Greece (incl. islands) and Cyprus (Marhold 2011+b). In the last two decades, however, it was reported from several additional regions in the Mediterranean region: Sicilia-Pantelleria (Bartolo & al. 2004), Corse (Gallo 2008), Tunisia (Lambinon 2000) and, since 2006, also from the Spanish mainland (Martínez Fort & Donat Torres 2006). Recently, it turned out that this species had been overlooked in the Balearic island of Menorca, as a result of confusion with C. tillaea Lest.-Garl. (Fraga-Arguimbau & al. 2018). In addition, it is also found as an introduced weed in Australia and New Zealand (Toelken 1981; Sykes 2005).

Crassula alata is a rather diminutive species that is easily overlooked or confused with similar species such as C. tillaea. It is easily separated from the latter based on its petals being only half as long as the sepals, the shortly pedicellate flowers, the mucronate leaf and sepal tips and the more or less winged stem (after desiccation).

It is here reported for the first time from the island of Mallorca. It occurs in a massive stand on the banks of a rivulet close to the sea, in a salt marsh area on brackish sand. It was accompanied by Polypogon maritimus Willd. and other species typical for that type of habitat.

It is sometimes thought that Crassula alata has been widely confused in the Mediterranean area and that it has been present for quite a long time. However, the recent record from Mallorca rather seems to point to a recent expansion; the species was certainly absent from that locality about 15 years ago (Ll. Sáez, pers. comm; also Sáez 2003).

D. De Beer & F. Verloove

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia davidii Subils

A Gg(G): Georgia: Tbilisi, road and path margins around petrol station next to Kakheti Highway S5, 1.3 km NE from Airport Settlement train station, 41°41′33.9″N, 44°57′39.3″E, c. 550 m, c. 50 plants, 17 Jul 2017, Novák & Zukal (BRNU). – Euphorbia davidii is an annual species native to North America, ranging between the central U.S.A. and NW Mexico. As an alien species it has been reported from Australia, South America and Europe (Barina & al. 2013). In the Euro+Med PlantBase (Euro+Med 2006+) it is reported from Bulgaria only. However, Barina & al. (2013) summarized its European distribution and reported the species from 13 countries, including the N Caucasian foothills in Russia, but not in Transcaucasia. In Europe, it has mostly been found along railways and less frequently road surroundings and arable lands. The source of its seeds in the Georgian site was probably traffic, because it is situated next to the highway, and a railway is also nearby. In this new site it occurred in a sparse vegetation dominated by the annual C4 grass Eragrostis minor Host (Digitario sanguinalis-Eragrostietea minoris).

P. Novák, V. Kalníková & D. Zukal

Gramineae (Poaceae)

Aegilops peregrina (Hack.) Maire & Weiller (≡ Triticum peregrinum Hack. ≡ Aegilemma peregrina (Hack.) Á. Löve ≡ Aegilops variabilis var. peregrina (Hack.) Eig & Feinbrun; = Aegilops variabilis Eig ≡ Triticum variabile (Eig) Markgr.; = T. ovatum subsp. violaceum Braun-Blanq. & Wilczek ≡ Aegilops ovata var. violacea (Braun-Blanq. & Wilczek) Maire) – Fig. 3, 4.

D Cm: Crimea: Sevastopol region, Balaclava vicinity, Vitmerova balka (Vitmer's ravine), 44°29′55.64″N, 33°37′45.45″E, 260 m, conglomerate hill, dry grasslands on the edge of woodlands of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. and Quercus pubescens Willd., 16 May 2017, Ryff (YALT); ibid., 10 Jun 2019, Ryff (YALT); ibid., Varnautskaya valley, Goncharnoye vicinity, 44°28′13″N, 33°42′08″E, 270 m, dry grassland on abandoned farmland, 26 May 2017, Svirin (YALT). – Aegilops peregrina differs from the widespread A. triuncialis L. by having glumes with veins equal in width, more or less parallel, protruding from the surface and equally spaced; it differs from the closely related A. kotschyi Boiss. (which has not yet been found in Crimea) by having a stout spike with an “irregular” appearance caused by wide variation in glume and lemma awn development, and by the glumes of the lowest fertile spikelets having 2 or 3 awns or teeth, non equally wide at the base (Slageren 1994).

Fig. 3.

Aegilops peregrina, habit of plant in habitat. – Crimea: Sevastopol region, Balaclava vicinity, Vitmerova balka, 10 Jun 2019, photograph by L. E. Ryff.

img-z10-14_305.jpg

Fig. 4.

Aegilops peregrina, dried specimens. – A: whole plant; B, C: panicles. – Scale bars: A–C = 1 cm. – Source of material: Crimea, Sevastopol region, Balaclava vicinity, Vitmerova balka, 10 Jun 2019 (A, C), 16 May 2017 (B), Ryff (YALT). – Photographs by L. E. Ryff.

img-z11-1_305.jpg

This is the first record of Aegilops peregrina for E Europe. Its native range is the S & E Mediterranean and W Asia from Tunisia and Greece to Transcaucasia, Iran and Turkmenistan. In Cyprus this species has a doubtful status, but in Morocco, Algeria and Italy it is alien (Valdés & al. 2009+; WCSP 2020). As an adventive plant it is also given for Scotland (Slageren 1994). Despite the fact that plants of A. peregrina are found only in natural and semi-natural habitats in Crimea, we assume that this species is also alien there. It was probably accidentally or deliberately introduced by the Albanian-speaking emigrants from Greece (“Arnauts”) who resettled Crimea from the Aegean Islands in the late 18th century. Balaclava and the Varnautskaya valley were exactly the areas of their compact residence. Isolation from the main range, limited distribution and small population size, in our opinion, testify in favour of the alien status of A. peregrina, but new findings could refute this.

L. E. Ryff & S. A. Svirin

Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn. (≡ Arundo selloana Schult. & Schult. f.)

N Tn: Tunisia: Tunis, Sidi Thabet, 36°54′36″N, 10°06′39″E, 23 m, Acacia plantations, 27 Jan 2018, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir); ibid., Tunis city, 36°51′06″N, 10°07′27″E, 88 m, ruderal vegetation on roadsides, 3 Feb 2020, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir); ibid., Monastir, Monastir city, 35°45′57″N, 10°48′22″E, 29 m, olive plantations, 29 Nov 2019, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir). – Native to temperate South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay; Zuloaga & al. 2008). In Europe, according to Başnou (2009), this spe- cies is mainly present in Ireland, Britain, France, Portugal, Spain and Italy. It also occurs in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, many Micronesian islands, the Hawaiian Islands and the Pacific coast of the U.S.A. For N Africa this species is currently listed as merely “cultivated” in the Canary Islands, Morocco and Algeria, although this status needs to be updated in at least some of these regions. In Tenerife in the Canary Islands, for instance, it has become an invasive species in a short period of time (Rodríguez Navarro & Fariña Trujillo 2019). In Tunisia and Libya it was considered to be “introduced” (alien with unknown status; Valdés & al. 2009+). However, for Tunisia it has not yet been cited or given as naturalized, neither by Le Floc'h & al. (2010), Dobignard & Chatelain (2010) nor in the continuously updated APD (2020). The actual alien status of C. selloana in Tunisia is here defined.

R. El Mokni & F. Verloove

Haloragaceae

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. – Fig. 5.

A Ca(P): Spain, Canary Islands, La Palma: SE of Barlovento, channel NE-ENE of pond in Área Recre ativa y Acampada (area designated for recreation and camping) near Laguna de Barlovento (large artificial basin for storage of drinking water), 28°48′32.1″N, 17°48′7.8″W, 735 m, 31 May 2019, Wallnöfer (photo). – A very large population of this plant grows at the bottom of the channel, which was very muddy and wet but without superficial water at the time of the observation. This species is native to South America and has been reported as an invasive neophyte from all continents except Antarctica (see map in CABI 2020). According to CABI (2020), it is now regarded as a major international aquatic weed, having been introduced to much of the warm-temperate to subtropical regions of the world. Cirujano (1997) reported it also from the Spanish mainland and from Portugal, and Hansen & Sunding (1993) from the nearby island of Madeira. It was not reported from the Canary Islands by Hohenester & Welß (1993), Uotila (2009+), Arechavaleta & al. (2010), Muer & al. (2016), Anthos (2020), Gil González (2020) and CABI (2020). The only species of Myriophyllum so far known to occur there (on El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) is M. spicatum L.

B. Wallnöfer

Fig. 5.

Myriophyllum aquaticum, flowering plant. – Spain: Canary Islands, La Palma, “Área Recreativa y Acampada” SE of Barlovento, 31 May 2019, photograph by B. Wallnöfer.

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Iridaceae

Iris basaltica Dinsm. – Fig. 6, 7.

+ Le: Lebanon: Michmich, 34°26′49″N, 36°12′38″E, c. 1650 m, 20 May 2020, Taleb (photos). – Hundreds of Oncocyclus irises flowering on basaltic ground in an open landscape along with Acer hyrcanum subsp. tauricola (Boiss. & Balansa) Yalt., Astragalus gummifer Labill., Berberis libanotica Ehrenb. and Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. were observed during a visit to Michmich. The irises were found in five sites with basaltic outcrop soil located a few kilometres apart from one another.

Fig. 6.

Map showing areas of basaltic substratum in Syria, Lebanon and Israel/Palestine (purple shading), after Dubertret (1955) and Walley (1998).

img-z13-1_305.jpg

Fig. 7.

Iris basaltica – A: basaltic landscape showing clumps of flowering Iris basaltica in foreground and tree of Juniperus excelsa in background; B: flowering plant. – Lebanon: Michmich, c. 1650 m, 20 May 2020, photographs by K. Taleb.

img-z13-3_305.jpg

Iris basaltica grows only on basalt (Fig. 6; Post 1933; West 1963). It was given by Mouterde (1966) as endemic to the S part of the coastal mountains of Talkalakh and Qala'at-el-Hosn basalt desert and hillsides in W Syria, in close proximity to the Lebanese border (Al-Abdul Wahab & al. 2004). Herbarium specimens are preserved in Paris (P). Iris basaltica is a perennial with short, knobby rhizomes, a long stem, many long, falcate leaves, a single spherical flower, sepals with a prominent signal spot that is distal to a relatively sparse and non-linear beard that does not extend to the midpoint of the sepal, and a conspicuous aril on the seed. Plants with different heights and different colour tones were observed. Irises of different ages highlight the very active natural regeneration at the newly discovered sites.

Iris sect. Oncocyclus (Siemssen) Dykes includes about 65 described taxa. They are restricted to SW Asia and are mainly found in the E Mediterranean region and the Caucasus. These irises have remarkable flower sizes and pollination biology. Induced hybridization among various species showed that inter-specific hybrids between taxa are fully fertile (Avishai & Zohary 1977). It is therefore believed that speciation in this group did not involve the build-up of internal reproductive isolation barriers. The various species of the highly specialized, insect-pollinated Oncocyclus irises are isolated from one another by geographic, ecological, and temporal mechanisms and by preferences of their pollinators (Sapir & Shmida 2002; Saad & al. 2009). They are also likely adapted to an environmental aridity gradient, which is indicative of ongoing species formation.

In Lebanon, seven Oncocyclus iris taxa exist at different altitudes (Abdel Samad & al. 2016) and are isolated geographically from one another: Iris antilibanotica Dinsm., I. bismarckiana Damman & Sprenger, I. cedreti Dinsm. ex Chaudhary, I. lortetii Barbey ex Boiss., I. sofarana f. kasruwana (Dinsm.) Mouterde, I. sofarana f. westii (Dinsm.) Mouterde and I. sofarana Foster s.str.

Iris basaltica is considered as Data Deficient according to IUCN standards (Lansdown 2016). There is no information on population trends in this species. This Iris was thought to be extinct until a few individuals were found in 2008 near Homs (Houlani 2008). Fortunately, its area of occupancy in Lebanon is relatively large. While the newly discovered I. basaltica populations in Lebanon are healthy and abundant, they happen to be all present on private lands, hence their entire habitats are threatened. Conservation measures should be taken promptly to preserve them.

K. A. Taleb, A. A. Taleb & M. Bou Dagher Kharrat

Iris variegata L. – Fig. 8.

+ Gr: Greece: C Makedonia, Nomos of Pella, Eparchia of Almopia, Mt Tzena, 41.158144°N, 22.257800°E, 1510 m, grassland, parent rock mixed gneiss and marble, 19 May 2013, Chasapis 2243 (TAUF); ibid., 14 Jun 2019, Chasapis 2467 (TAUF). – This is a C & SE European species with a wide distribution from SC Germany and W Ukraine to Bulgaria and North Macedonia (Barker & Govaerts 2019; Tutin & al. 1980). Not mentioned for Greece by Dimopoulos & al. (2013, 2016), its occurrence in that country was first substantiated by herbarium material in 2013. A few individuals (c. 10) were found on a steep, stony and grassy slope of Mt Tzena at an altitude of 1510 m, just below the treeline formed by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In 2019, a larger population of c. 100 individuals was found in the same locality.

M. Chasapis, D. A. Samaras, K. Theodoropoulos & E. Eleftheriadou

Labiatae (Lamiaceae)

Salvia reflexa Hornem.

A Gg(G): Georgia: Racha-Lekhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Achara, 42°33′34.5″N, 42°51′22.1″E, c. 490 m, c. 50 plants in ruderal site in village, next to main road, 8 Jul 2017, Novák (BRNU); ibid., Mstskheta-Tianeti, Ananuri, 42°10′22.7″N, 44°41′38.3″E, c. 840 m, four plants in open grassland in front of house below Georgian Military Highway, 10 Aug 2018, Novák & Harásek (photo). – Salvia reflexa is an annual herb of North American origin (central U.S.A. and Mexico). In both its native and non-native ranges, it occurs on trampled sites and as a weed of crops (Lovett & Lynch 1979; Shao & al. 2019). It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the warmer parts of the world, including S Europe. As it has prolific seed production, it is spreading by escaping from cultivation and by seeds contained in foodstuffs (grain and bird seed). In newly reached regions, it can rapidly colonize suitable habitats and affect the vegetation, where it can be a dangerous weed in crop fields because it contains substances toxic to cattle (Shao & al. 2019). In the Euro+Med PlantBase (Euro+Med 2006+), it has so far been reported only in Ukraine, although it was also mentioned as a casual alien in the United Kingdom (Clement & Foster 1994). In Achara, it inhabited species-rich annual vegetation (Sisymbrietea) dominated by tall herbs (Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. and Xanthium spinosum L.). In Ananuri, the trampled grassland (Molinio-Arrhenatheretea) was dominated by Cichorium intybus L. and Trifolium repens L.

P. Novák, V. Kalníková & M. Harásek

Fig. 8.

Iris variegata, flowering plant in habitat. – Greece: Central Makedonia, Mt Tzena, 19 May 2013, photograph by M. Chasapis.

img-z15-1_305.jpg

Leguminosae (Fabaceae)

Onobrychis altissima Grossh.

+ Rf(CS): Russia: Dagestan, Dakhadaevsky district, NE slope in area of N Kaba, N of Urkarakh villages, 42°11′N, 47°37′E, c. 1700 m, grass meadow, 5 Jul 1947, Chilikina (LENUD); ibid., terrace at Shchirbachi site near Urkarakh villages, 42°07′N, 47°37′E, grassy slope, 6 Jul 1947, Chilikina (LENUD); ibid., W slope of Ainurbalakat site near Urkarah villages, 42°09′N, 47°34′E, 21 Jul 1947, Chilikina (LENUD); ibid., Buinaksky district, above Karamakhi village, NE slope, 42°36′42.6″N, 47°13′50.3″E, 1280 m, 26 Aug 2016, Murtazaliev (DAG). – Onobrychis altissima grows in Transcaucasia, as well as in Turkey and Iran (Yakovlev & al. 1996; Menitsky 2001). The species is recorded here for the first time for the Russian part of the Caucasus. It was recently collected by us in Dagestan, and several sheets were found in the herbarium of the Dagestan University (LENUD), collected in the mid-20th century and correctly identified by L. Chilikina. Onobrychis altissima is closest to O. inermis Steven, from which it differs in the larger size of the plant, including larger fruits and flowers. Onobrychis altissima grows in dry meadows in the middle mountain belt, whereas O. inermis grows on steppe slopes in the lowlands and in the lower mountain zone.

R. A. Murtazaliev

Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet

A Tn: Tunisia: Bizerte, Bizerta city, Bab-Mateur, 37°16′12″N, 09°52′01″E, 10 m, roadsides, 23 Feb 2011, El Mokni (herb. El Mokni); ibid., Jendouba, Tabarka, El Houemdeya, 36°55′33″N, 08°47′22″E,, 30 m, abandoned field, 4 Mar 2015, El Mokni (herb. El Mokni); ibid., Aïn Draham, 36°46′54″N, 08°41′12″E, 720 m, pedestrian paths, roadsides, 11 May 2016, El Mokni (herb. El Mokni).

C Ag: Algeria: Annaba, Annaba city, quartier Gassiot, 36°55′06″N, 07°45′21″E, 70 m, private gardens, 23 Mar 2020, De Bélair (herb. De Bélair).

Wisteria sinensis is a perennial, woody species native to China, where it is widespread (Wei & Pedley 2010). This species is cultivated in temperate regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia and North and South America (Wei & Pedley 2010; GBIF 2013; Kartesz 2015; ILDIS 2020). In the U.S.A., it is listed as naturalized from Vermont and Massachusetts south to Florida and west into Illinois and Texas (Kartesz 2015); it is also noted as occurring in Hawaii (PIER 2018). Other countries list occasional, naturalized populations of W. sinensis, including New Zealand (Webb & al. 1988) and Argentina (Hurrell & al. 2011). In Europe, the taxon is reported as alien with “status unknown” in France (see, e.g., Heywood & Ball 1968; Greuter & al. 1989; ILDIS 2020), as occasionally naturalized in Spain (Campos & Herrera 2008) and as naturalized in Italy (Galasso & al. 2018). For N Africa, the status needs to be defined (see Dobignard & Chatelain 2012; CABI 2020), even though the species was reported from Algeria in 1913 as an introduced and well-acclimatized taxon (Gubb 1913). Here we assign to W. sinensis the status of “alien” in Tunisia and “cultivated in large scale” in Algeria.

R. El Mokni & G. De Bélair

Malvaceae

Abutilon grandifolium (Willd.) Sweet

N Tn: Tunisia: Nabeul, Bir Bouragba, 36°25′41″N, 10°34′12″E, 20 m, roadsides, 25 Jun 2017, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir); ibid., Monastir, Jemmel toward Bir Taeib, 35°37′45″N, 10°44′39″E, 20 m, 23 Sep 2018, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir). – Abutilon grandifolium, a shrubby tree 1–3 m tall originating from South America, is a naturalized weed in tropical Africa, South Africa (mainly in KwaZuluNatal and Eastern Cape provinces), Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands (see, e.g., Hutchinson & Dalziel 1958; Burkill 1997; Bredenkamp & Leistner 2003; Jaca & al. 2015; Von Staden 2016; Badry & al. 2018). In the Mediterranean region, this species has not yet been recorded according to Valdés (2011+b). However, more recently it was reported from Portugal and Spain (Domingues de Almeida & Freitas 2012; GBIF 2015a; CABI 2020; Verloove & al. 2020). For N Africa, the species is cited as alien with unknown status only in the Canary Islands. In fact, A. grandifolium is considered invasive there (Acebes Ginovés & al. 2010). The African Plant Database (APD 2020) listed the occurrence of the species as present with “naturalised-introduced” status for the Canary Islands, Morocco and Egypt. A. grandifolium is reported here for the first time from Tunisia. Sporadic subpopulations of a few perennial individuals have been observed growing mainly in the Cap Bono region since 2018; therefore, the species can be considered as locally naturalized in Tunisia.

R. El Mokni & F. Verloove

Orchidaceae

Ophrys helenae Renz (≡ O. sphegodes subsp. helenae (Renz) Soó) – Fig. 9.

D AE(G): Greece, East Aegean Islands: Nomos of Lesvos, Island of Lesvos, near Eresos, 39.15388°N, 25.95917°E, 120 m, on verge of road between Kalloni and Eresos, two flowering individuals, 9 Apr 2018, Löki & al. (photo). – The new record is located on a roadside verge, and its indigenous status is doubtful. On the one hand, roadsides often host viable orchid populations (Fekete & al. 2017; Rewicz & al. 2017), and these habitats can serve as ecological corridors for plant dispersal, linking distant habitat patches (Tikka & al. 2001). Therefore, the natural long-distance spread of the species is easily conceivable. Moreover, in the genus Ophrys, a significant long-distance dispersal event is also known (Molnár V. & al. 2011). However, the dispersal of small seeds can be facilitated by the air-turbulence of cars (Ross 1986) or by mud attached to vehicles, which often contains large numbers of various seeds (Clifford 1959). Therefore, the human-induced colonization of the plant cannot be excluded.

Ophrys helenae was described from the island of Kerkira (Corfu) based on a single specimen observed in two consecutive years (Renz 1928: 251). The species is distributed in Greece from Kerkira and Kefalonia east to Thessalia, south to the Gulf of Korinthos and north to Kastoria (Delforge 2006); furthermore, it also occurs in S Albania (Barina 2017). Its centre of distribution is in Ipiros (Delforge 2006), but only a single location (Ilia) is known in Peloponnisos (Papadopoulos & al. 2011). Occurrence of the species on the Aegean islands was previously unknown. The new record of O. helenae is located 450 km distant from the closest known population. The plant grows in full light to partial shade in xerotherm or mesophilous habitats on alkaline substrates, scrublands, open woodlands and dry grasslands, up to 1000 m above sea level (Delforge 2006). Ophrys helenae is a morphologically very stable and distinct species within the genus. Its most remarkable characteristic is the entire, orbicular to broadly oboval, cherry-red to red-winecoloured lip without a speculum (Renz 1928; Delforge 2006).

V. Löki, R. Fekete & A. Molnár V.

Orobanchaceae

Orobanche baumanniorum Greuter – Fig. 10.

+ It: Italy: Apulia, Gargano, region Mattinata, 10 May 2006, Gubler (photos, host unclear, det./rev. Uhlich & Rätzel 21 Jan 2020). – New for Italy and the C Mediterranean (cf. Pignatti 2018). Orobanche baumanniorum was described from Greece (Greuter 1987: 448; holotype: Sterea Ellas, Attika, Mt Parnis, May 1974, Baumann & Baumann, herb. Greuter; isotype:  B 10 0294598!, host Pterocephalus perennis Coult.) and has a restricted distribution in the E Mediterranean. In Greece, the species is given for the regions Ionian Islands, North East, North Central, East Central, Sterea Ellas and Peloponnisos (Dimopoulos & al. 2013). It has also been recorded from the Taurus mountains of Turkey, as follows: Flora of Turkey grid square C3: Antalya, 2019, Gül (photo,  https://turkiyebitkileri.com/en/photo-gallery/view-album/4521.html, accessed 22 Feb 2020); Kemer, Kesme boğazı (Zare & al. 2017); Manavgat, Oymapınar-dam (Zare & al. 2017); C4: Gündoğmuş, 2018, Gül (photo,  https://turkiyebitkileri.com/en/photo-gallery/view-album/4521.html, accessed 22 Feb 2020); Gündoğmuş, Alıkbazı (Zare & al. 2017); Basyayla NW of Ermenek (Hahn & al. pers. comm. 2001); Gazipaşa, Sugözü (Zare & al. 2017); Demirtaş, between Beydibi/ Beldibi and Çiğdem Daği, Inhisar (Zare & al. 2017); C5: between Işıktepe/Sedichig and Çukurkeşlik, Efrenk valley/Güzeldere (Zare & al. 2017).

Fig. 9.

Ophrys helenae – A: flowering plant in habitat; B: inflorescence. – Greece: Lesvos, near Eresos, 9 Apr 2018, photographs by A. Molnár V.

img-z17-1_305.jpg

Orobanche baumanniorum shows a characteristic habit and is morphologically relatively isolated from all other Orobanche species in the Eurasian area except O. cypria Reut., probably endemic to Cyprus. Its position in O. subsect. Glandulosae (Beck) Teryokhin by Teryokhin & al. (1993) is provisional.

All verified host plants belong to Caprifo-liaceae, mostly Pterocephalus perennis, rarely various species from Cephalaria, Lonicera and Scabiosa (see also Rätzel & al. 2018b).

H. Uhlich, E. Gubler & S. Rätzel

Orobanche lucorum A. Braun ex F. W. Schultz (= O. rubi Duby, nom. utique rej. prop.) – Fig. 11.

+ Rf(CS): Russia: North Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkariya, El'brusskiy rayon, Adyr-Su valley (S tributary of Baksan river), above vehicle lift c. 1 km S of Verkhniy Baksan, 43°18′N, 42°45′31″E, 1655 m, pine forest, grazed, presumably on Berberis, 19 Jul 2019, Parolly & al. 15740B 10 1118201, MW, W; det. Rätzel & Uhlich Mar 2020). – New for Russia and the first verified record for the entire Caucasus region. Orobanche lucorum, described from Germany (lectotype designated by Fleischmann & al. 2019: 599) was believed to have a restricted distribution in the European Alps. Its hosts include deciduous Berberis species, in nature especially B. vulgaris L. Native populations of the plant were so far known from Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein Austria and Italy (Beck 1890: 187, Karte I; Beck 1930: 264; Kreutz 1995: 112; Uhlich & al. 1995: 149, 232, map 13; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 294; Pusch 2009: 87; Sánchez Pedraja & al. 2016+).

Fig. 10.

Orobanche baumanniorum – A: habit of flowering plant; B: detail of inflorescences. – Italy: Apulia, Gargano, region Matinata, 10 May 2006, photographs by E. Gubler.

img-z18-1_305.jpg

Fig. 11.

Orobanche lucorum – A, B: habit of flowering plants with probable host Berberis; C: detail of flower. – Russia: Greater Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Adyr-Su (Baksan river) valley, 19 Jul 2019, photographs by E. von Raab-Straube (A, B) and G. Parolly (C).

img-z18-3_305.jpg

Some older records of this taxon from France (as Orobanche rubi), Slovenia, Croatia and Romania could not be confirmed (Grecescu 1898: 450; Beck 1930: 264f; Buia 1961: 70; Gilli 1975: 501; Kreutz 1995: 112; Uhlich & al. 1995: 149; Sánchez Pedraja & al. 2016+). Indications concerning the occurrence in Slovenia by Pusch (2009: 87) are doubtful, and Wraber & Skoberne (1989) did not list the species for that country. Orobanche lucorum has sometimes been confused with O. lycoctoni Rhiner, mainly in the Balkan Peninsula, but also in the Alps (Sánchez Pedraja & al. 2016+; unpublished records from herbaria). Records from Croatia (Sánchez Pedraja & al. 2016+, citing Kreutz 2001: 431) are due to confusion with O. minor Sm. Records from Spain are erroneous and refer to other taxa (e.g. Foley 2001a: 60; Foley 2001b: 228; Sánchez Pedraja & al. 2016+). However, adventive occurrences are known from many European countries, which mostly originate from botanical institutions and gardens and can apparently be persistent for a long time (cf. Beck 1930: 265; Uhlich & al. 1995: 149; Sánchez Pedraja & al. 2016+).

The only previous indication for the Caucasus (Koch 1849: 667, “wächst nur auf holzigen Wurzeln verschiedener Sträucher … im südlichen Dagestan sehr häufig, 500–800′ hoch”; record not mentioned by Beck 1930) is uncertain and could well refer to other species, especially to the widely distributed Orobanche laxissima Uhlich & Rätzel (Rätzel & Uhlich 2004: 194). Orobanche lucorum is not mentioned in floristic literature for Russia or the Caucasus region (e.g. Novopokrovsky & Tzvelev 1958; Tzvelev 2015), and no specimens have been found in comprehensive herbarium revisions, mainly in LE, during the last two decades by the second author. The present population was found in a pastured clearing in Pinus sylvestris var. hamata Steven forest supporting scattered shrubs of Berberis cf. vulgaris. Associated herbaceous species include Alchemilla spp., Campanula collina Sims, C. grossheimii Charadze, Gentianella caucasea (Sims) Holub, Scabiosa ochroleuca L., Trifolium canescens Willd. and T. repens L.

Orobanche lucorum belongs to the group of O. flava F. W. Schultz and differs from related species by it erect, barely reflexed upper calyx lobes, and from some of the related taxa (e.g. O. flava and O. salviae W. D. J. Koch) by deeply inserted (2–3 mm) filaments. It is further characterized by the usually very lax inflorescence, at least in the basal part, and by very tender and relatively short calyx parts barely reaching ½ of the corolla length. In all those characters, the material from the Elbrus region is similar to plants from the Alps and to the type specimen. Orobanche inulae Novopokr. & Abramov from the same group, locally frequent in the W part of the Great Caucasus, differs in ecology (hosts: Inula sp.), colour (whole plant yellowish to whitish without red or brown tinge), habit (inflorescence remaining compact) and morphology (e.g. much denser, eglandular pi-lose indumentum on filaments, almost reaching anthers).

The gathering from the Elbrus area, however, stands out by having flowers significantly larger than the size given in the literature for Orobanche lucorum from the Alps (17–25 mm vs 12–20[–21] mm; cf. Beck 1930: 263; Gilli 1975: 500; Kreutz 1995: 112; Uhlich & al. 1995: 148; Pusch 2009: 86). The original descriptions (Schultz 1830: 504; Braun in Koch 1833: 456) do not indicate the flower size. However, further examination of specimens of O. lucorum in B by the first author revealed that material from the European Alps can also have larger flowers up to 25 mm long, e.g.: Austria, Innsbruck, 1 Aug 1894, BornmüllerB 10 1113779); Italy, Bozen [Bolzano], in alpibus Rosengarten, pr. Welschnofen, Berberidi parasitica, 27 Jul 1903, BornmüllerB 10 1113778); Italy, Südalpen, Vintschgau, 15 Jul 1966, PoeltB 10 1113780, as O. cf. lucorum). Therefore, indication of flower size has to be emended, i.e. enlarged, for the species throughout its distribution range, and the larger flower size does not constitute a special trait for the apparently disjunct population in the Elbrus region.

S. Rätzel, H. Uhlich, D. Shilnikov, N. Korotkova, G. Parolly & E. von Raab-Straube

Orobanche lutea Baumg.

+ By: Belarus: [label translated into English] Vitebsk region and district, railway territory, station Lëtsy c. 2 km toward Vitebsk, right side, c. 300 m from bridge over Uzhniza river (direction Vitebsk), 140 m, steppic grassy meadow in strip separated by railway, more than 40 plants in 200 × 5 m area, 17 Jul 1999, Dschus [Dzhus] 1174 (LE, with fragments of presumed host Medicago falcata L., conf. Uhlich Feb 2020). – New for Belarus. Not mentioned in Uhlich & al. (1995), Tretyakov & Dzhus (1999), Domina & Raab-Straube (2010+) and Sánchez Pedraja & al. (2016+).

H. Uhlich & S. Rätzel

Phelipanche gussoneana (Lojac.) Domina & al. (≡ Phelypaea gussoneana Lojac.; = Phelipanche schultzioides M. J. Y. Foley ≡ Orobanche schultzioides (M. J. Y. Foley) Domina; – O. ramosa var. brevispicata sensu Meikle 1985, non (Ledeb.) R. A. Graham) – Fig. 12.

Fig. 12.

Phelipanche gussoneana var. zosimae – A: habit of flowering plant parasitizing Seseli ponticum; B: habit of flowering plant parasitizing Fibigia clypeata subsp. eriocarpa; C, D: habit of flowering plants parasitizing Origanum onites; C: left and middle plants with form of corolla lobes transitional to var. gussoneana; D: plant with form of corolla lobes typical for var. zosimae. – A: Russia, Krasnodar territory, Anapa district, vicinity of Bolshoy Utrish, 9 Jun 2017, photograph by A. V. Fateryga; B: ibid., 4 May 2018, photograph by A. V. Popovich; C, D: Greece, Rodos, Tsambika near Stegna, 2 Apr 2019, photographs by S. Rätzel. – Scale bar: A = 1 cm.

img-z20-1_305.jpg

+ AE(G): Greece, East Aegean Islands: Rodos, c. 3.5 km NNE of Stegna (near Archangelos), Tsambika, in shrubs of Origanum onites L. (Lamiaceae), 14 Mar 2018, Kummer (photo; herb. Rätzel); ibid., Tsambika, 36°14′02.2″N, 28°09′17.9″E (WGS 84), c. 80 m, phrygana in S exposition, limestone, exclusively parasitic on O. onites (verified, matrix nova), at least 150 shoots, most sprouting, 2 Apr 2019, Ristow & Rätzel (herb. Rätzel, var. zosimae (M. J. Y. Foley) Rätzel & Uhlich, Fig. 12D, and rarely transitional forms to var. gussoneana, Fig. 12C); ibid., Chalki, c. 2.2 km W of Imborios, Chorio/Chorio castle, 36°13′12.4″N, 27°35′08.5″E, c. 290 m, phrygana in N exposition, limestone, parasitic on O. onites (verified), small population, 31 May 2014, Rätzel (herb. Rätzel, var. zosimae).

+ Cy: Cyprus: Division 1 (sensu Meikle 1977/1985), Tala, slope opposite entrance to Agios Neofytos monastery, c. 400 m, macchia, 1 May 1997, Hand 1216 (B 10 0274917, as Orobanche ramosa var. brevispicata (Ledeb.) R. A. Graham, rev. Rätzel 24 Jul 2019, Phelipanche gussoneana var. gussoneana, left-hand, large plant in mixed collection with P. mutelii (F. W. Schultz) Pomel); ibid., Division 2 (sensu Meikle 1977/1985), Pano Panagia, Vrysia valley c. 5 km NNE, c. 750 m, “on Compositae?”, 26 Apr 1998, Hand 2325 (B 10 0274915, as O. ramosa var. brevispicata, rev. Rätzel 24 Jul 2019, P. gussoneana var. gussoneana); ibid., Cyprus, Agia, station forestière (Paphos), 600 m, milieu anthropisé, humide, sous-bois de platane, sur Smyrnium, 23 Apr 1991, Alziar & al., No. Rec. It. 1288 (B without number, as O. aegyptiaca Pers., rev. Rätzel 24 Jul 2019, P. gussoneana var. gussoneana).

+ Le: Lebanon: Wadi Ramayah bei Nabay, 17 Apr 2003, Böcker, Nr. LIBA 4 (B 10 0626295, as Orobanche ramosa L., rev. Rätzel 24 Jul 2019, Phelipanche gussoneana var. gussoneana).

In addition to Foley (2008) and Rätzel & al. (2017a, 2017b, 2018a), we can add the occurrence of this obviously widespread species to several regions. It has a wide spectrum of host species. In comparison, Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel (see record from Agia, Cyprus) is characterized by a lax spike with relatively few flowers, short, rather blunt bracts and a large corolla with an inflated throat. The calyx, with short teeth, is strikingly very delicate compared to the corolla. Phelipanche aegyptiaca is mostly a species of agricultural fields. Good pictures of this historically often misunderstood species were provided in Hand & al. (2011+). For pictures and photographs of P. gussoneana, see Foley (2008) and Rätzel & al. (2017a, 2017b, 2018a), the last-cited publication has photographs from the locus classicus of P. gussoneana in Sicily.

In this context, we have to mention Orobanche hirtiflora subsp. zosimae M. J. Y. Foley, described from Cyprus. We believe it to be con-specific with Phelipanche gussoneana, under which we recombine it at varietal rank.

Phelipanche gussoneana var. zosimae (M. J. Y. Foley) Rätzel & Uhlich, comb. & stat. nov.Orobanche hirtiflora subsp. zosimae M. J. Y. Foley in Candollea 58: 94. 2003 [‘zosimii'] ≡ Phelipanche zosimae (M. J. Y. Foley) M. J. Y. Foley in Edinburgh J. Bot. 64: 210. 2007 [‘zosimii'] ≡ Orobanche zosimae (M. J. Y. Foley) Domina in Inform. Bot. Ital. 42: 383. 2010 [‘zosimi']. [Editors' note: In the protologue by Foley (2003), no indication was given as to the etymology of the epithet “zosimii”. Following a hint by Luis Carlón, we assume that Foley intended to name the new taxon after its host plant, Zosima absinthiifolia (Vent.) Link, not to an unidentifiable person named Zosim, Zosimius or Zosimus. The genus Zosima Hoffm. (1814) was dedicated to three brothers Zosimas. It is not convincing to assume that Foley wished to dedicate the new taxon to one or more of those brothers.]

This taxon was known only from the locus classicus in Cyprus (2 km S of Trimiklini, just E of road, phrygana, 16 May 1992, Foley 162, E00180154; Foley 2003: 94). It could not be confirmed there in recent years, probably because the place was burnt some time ago (Hand pers. com. Feb 2020). The host was Zosima absinthiifolia (Vent.) Link (Apiaceae; Foley 2003). According to the original description with photographs (Foley 2003: 94) and additional notes on the label of the holotype, the plants are pale with yellowish shoots, scales, bracts and calyces. The corollas were said to be whitish to pale blue-whitish.

The holotype also shows peculiar, apically contorted to curled calyx lobes and rhombic to rectangular, strongly apically elongate-acuminate corolla lobes. We have seen plants of identical coloration and morphology from Chalki and Rodos (see above) and also from the Russian coast of the Black Sea at Bolshoy Utrish near Anapa in Rf(CS) (2017 & 2018, leg. & photos Fateryga & Popovich), where they are confirmed from the following hosts: Seseli ponticum Lipsky (Fig. 12A; Apiaceae), Odontarrhena obtusifolia (Steven ex DC.) C. A. Mey. (Brassicaceae) and Fibigia clypeata subsp. eriocarpa (DC.) Greuter (Fig. 12B; Brassicaceae). The plants from Bolshoy Utrish differ slightly from those of the East Aegean Islands by the slightly smaller extreme values of the multicellular hairs (0.1–0.3 mm vs 0.1–0.5 mm) at the margins and in the inner part of the corolla (especially of the lobes). Other differences have not been noticed, so we consider the plants to fit into the range of this variety.

Even if typical plants of Phelipanche gussoneana var. zosimae seem to be very distinct, the study of the large population on Rodos showed a number of morphologically transitional plants to P. gussoneana s. str., especially in the form of the corolla lobes (Fig. 12C). This holds likewise for other characters. The point of insertion of the stamens is said to be (4–)5–6 mm above the corolla base in P. gussoneana var. zosimae vs 2–4 mm in P. gussoneana var. gussoneana (see descriptions of P. zosimae and P. schultzioides in Foley 2003, 2008). Again, the study of larger populations shows the variability of this character: (3–)4–6 mm for P. gussoneana var. zosimae (plants from Chalki and Rodos) and 2–5 mm in P. gussoneana s. str. (e.g. plants from Azerbaijan and Crimea), as well as a much greater variability in a number of characters compared to Foley's descriptions, including the amount of hairs and glands on the stamens, ovary and style. Finally it is worth mentioning a new finding of Phelipanche parasitizing Zosima absinthiifolia in a new location in Cyprus: Agios Ilarionas castle, 26 Apr 2019, Hadjikyriakou (photo,  http://www.flora-of-cyprus.eu/cdm_dataportal/taxon/d2f7dce2-c76a-44dd-8bf0-7351e0c21486/images, accessed 12 May 2020). According to the photograph, these plants morphologically and in colour match P. gussoneana s. str. (see Hand & al. 2011+). So it can be stated that Zosima is not parasitized exclusively by P. gussoneana var. zosimae.

S. Rätzel, R. Böcker, A. V. Fateryga, V. Kummer, A. V. Popovich, M. Ristow & H. Uhlich

Phelipanche hedypnoidis Rätzel & al. (≡ Orobanche hedypnoidis (Rätzel & al.) Hand)

+ Tn: Tunisia: Hammamet, Feldrain, May 1968, GeißlerB 10 1104518, as Orobanche ramosa L.; rev. & det. Rätzel & Ristow 11 Mar 2020). – New for Tunisia. This is the second finding for N Africa of this recently described, mainly Mediterranean species. In N Africa it was hitherto known only from Morocco (Rätzel & al. 2017b). The species was found restricted to a coastal strip a few kilometres distant from the sea. Hammamet as a seaside town fits well into this distributional range. For identification and chorology, see Rätzel & al. (2017b), Hand (2019) and Uhlich & Rätzel (2019).

S. Rätzel & M. Ristow

Phelipanche olbiensis (Coss.) Carlón & al. (≡ Orobanche olbiensis (Coss.) Nyman)

+ Tu(A): Turkey: Bolkar Daghlari, Karagöl-Kar, Hänge westlich Meydan, 37°25′N, 34°37′E, 2450 m, Zwergstrauchflur, karbonatisches Substrat, 7 Aug 1992, Hein 89-7aB 10 0666639, det. Parolly 1996 as Orobanche mutelii F. Schultz, rev. Rätzel 11 Mar 2020). – New for Turkey. Not mentioned in Gilli (1971), Gilli (1982), Pils (2006) and Güner & al. (2012). For identification, more details and distribution see Carlón & al. (2008: 79), Domina & Raab-Straube (2010+), Flora Ionica Working group (2016+), Rätzel & al. (2016) and Sánchez Pedraja & al. (2016+).

S. Rätzel, P. Hein & H. Uhlich

Plumbaginaceae

Plumbago auriculata Lam. (= P. capensis Thunb.)

A Tn: Tunisia: Bizerta, Jarzouna, 37°15′54″N, 09°53′07″E, 1 m, young individuals developed among and near parental plants not far from a public garden, 27 Jan 2020, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir). – A casual alien species new for the flora of Tunisia. Native of South Africa, Plumbago auriculata is distributed in other tropical and subtropical regions (Foden & Potter 2005). In Europe, the species seems to be introduced/cultivated as an ornamental in a large scale mainly in Italy and Portugal, whereas it is considered a casual alien in the Balearic Islands (Domina 2011+; Sáez & al. 2016). In N Africa, the species is reported only as alien with “status unknown” in the Canary Islands and as “cultivated doubtfully escaping” in Libya (Domina 2011+; APD 2020).

R. El Mokni

Polygonaceae

Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub (≡ Polygonum baldschuanicum Regel) – Fig. 13.

A Tn: Tunisia: Monastir, left side of road toward Kairouan, 35°46′04″N, 10°48′59″E, 26 m, an escape in ornamental plantations, 8 Dec 2019, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir). – A casual alien species new for the flora of Tunisia and N Africa (Uotila 2017+; APD 2020). Fallopia baldschuanica is native to Asia (China, Kazakhstan, Russia, etc.) and can be found growing wild in parts of Europe (see, e.g., Domingues de Almeida & Freitas 2006; Bazan & Castellano 2007; Brunel & al. 2010; Verloove 2020) and North and Central America as an introduced species (see, e.g., CABI 2020; Flora of North America 2020).

R. El Mokni & F. Verloove

Rosaceae

Amelanchier ovalis Medik. subsp. ovalis

– Le: Absent from the Levant. Previous literature records under this name (Meusel & al. 1965: 210; Browicz 1971: 10; Browicz 1984: 5, 29; Scholz 1995: 395) or its synonym Amelanchier rotundifolia (Lam.) Dum.-Cours. subsp. rotundifolia (Browicz 1972: 170) from Lebanon refer to A. parviflora var. libanotica; see the following entry.

Amelanchier parviflora var. libanotica (Browicz) Fridlender, comb. nov.Amelanchier ovalis var. libanotica Browicz in Arbor. Kórnickie 16: 10. 1971; – A. ovalis sensu Mouterde (1970), Tohmé & Tohmé (2007) et Tohmé & Tohmé (2014), non Medik.

+ Le: Lebanon: Governorate of Akkar, Fnaydek, Qalaat Aarouba mountain, 34.454°N, 36.234°E, 1930 m, individuals on mountain slope with Berberis libanotica C. K. Schneid., Cotoneaster sp., Daphne oleoides Schreb., Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb., Rhamnus libanotica Boiss., Ribes orientale Desf., Rosa cf. spinosissima L., Rosa sp., Rubus sp. and Sorbus flabellifolia (Spach) S. Schauer, 20 May 2019, Fridlender (obs.); Governorate of North-Lebanon, Ehden, escarpment above Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve, 34.295°N, 35.972°E, 1650–1700 m, few individuals at early anthesis, 27 May 2019, Fridlender (CLF 121192); ibid., Bcharré, road to the cedars, on trail to Qadisha grotto, 34.247455°N, 36.030733°E, 1700 m, a single individual, 4 Oct 2014, Stephan (obs.); ibid., Diman, on sandstone above village, c. 1400 m, Aug 2012, Stephan (obs.); ibid., Governorate of Mount-Lebanon, Mt Sannine, on escarpment near “grande coulée”, 33.954726°N, 35.846503°E, 2084 m, with individuals of Cotoneaster nummularius Fisch. & C. A. Mey. and Sorbus flabellifolia, 22 Aug 2019, Stephan (obs.); ibid., Baskinta, in Wadi Aassi separating the village from Bqaatouta, 33.965220°N, 35.785034°E, 1200 m, sandstone escarpments along a valley, several individuals mixed with Fraxinus ornus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Pinus pinea L. and Rhododendron ponticum var. brachycarpum Boiss., 29 May 2019, Stephan (obs.). – The general aspect of young flowering shoots from the Ehden population (leg. A. Fridlender), in particular the very hairy leaves and calyces; compact inflorescences (due to short pedicels); short petals (c. 7 mm); and relatively large fruits (c. 1 cm) of a bright colour on short pedicels confirm that the Lebanese plants are morphologically distant from the two subspecies of Amelanchier ovalis Medik. from southern France and their adjacent loci classici (petals 14–19 mm; Favarger & Stearn 1983; Pignatti 2019). Anthers from the Ehden plants contain few pollen grains and some are aborted. The Lebanese plants are more closely related to plants from Anatolia and rather belong to A. parviflora Boiss. (“petalis ovato-oblongis extus tomentosis calyce duplo longioribus”, Boissier 1872: 668) than to A. ovalis (“petalis oblongo-lanceolatis calyce 3–4plo longioribus”, Boissier loc. cit.). Therefore, A. ovalis var. libanotica Browicz, which was established on the basis of leaf characters (“folia acuminata, margine argute serrata”, Browicz 1971: 10), has to be considered a variety of A. parviflora (“floribus eis A. vulgaris dimidio minoribus niveis, pyri-diis pisi magnitudine”, Boissier 1843: 9).

Fig. 13.

Fallopia baldschuanica – A: detail of fruiting plant; B: detail of flowering and fruiting plant showing typical white inflorescence. – Tunisia: Monastir, Monastir city, road toward Kairouan, 8 Dec 2019, photographs by R. El Mokni.

img-z23-1_305.jpg

Given that polyploidy and apomixis produce numerous micromorphs and complicate species delimitation in the genus (Burgess & al. 2014), Amelanchier seems to be represented in the Mediterranean area by two main groups: (1) the western group, with A. ovalis subsp. ovalis and A. ovalis subsp. embergeri Favarger & Stearn in continental Europe and North Africa, with several local variants in isolated areas or islands: A. ovalis var. balearica Briq. in E Catalunya; A. ovalis subvar. comafredensis Bolos & Vigo in Mallorca; A. ovalis var. rhamnoides (Litard.) Briq. in Corsica; and A. ovalis var. djurdjurae Chabert in E Algeria (Chabert 1889: 22; Chabert 1906: 314; Maire 1980: 129); and (2) the eastern group, with A. parviflora in SW Anatolia and various related microtaxa in Lebanon and the southern Balkan peninsula (A. parviflora subsp. chelmea (Halácsy) Ziel.; A. cretica (Willd.) DC. s.l., see Blečić & Pulević 1983; Scholz 1995: 395). The record of A. cretica from Sicily seems doubtful because it is based on plants from Quacella that have “petali di misure maggiori rispetto a A. ovalis subsp. embergeri” (Pignatti 2019: 180) and are therefore hardly compatible with plants of the eastern “parviflora” group.

Even the distinction between these two groups is perhaps not as clear as it seems: in Lebanon, there is obviously a significant variability in the relative length of the petals and the calyx between the populations. Likewise, the leaves and calyces, hairy or even sublanate, can become completely hairless in less than two weeks when growing. In this context it is not easy to find plants of the same phenological stage for comparison. The morphological criteria used in the classification of the genus in the Mediterranean (Favarger & Stearn 1983; Strid 1986; Zieliński 2000) require a more in-depth study and above all a comparison with the genetic and cytological data.

Nevertheless, the habitat preference of all Amelanchier taxa is similar throughout Mediterranean ecosystems. Amelanchier ovalis is relatively abundant in the NW Mediterranean basin, where it is a pioneer shrub in rocky places. Cattle (goats, donkeys, etc.) appreciate this shrub and graze all accessible branches. This is why Amelanchier took refuge in inaccessible escarpments. When pastoral pressure decreases, A. ovalis recolonizes mountain slopes and even underwood in the forest belt below the timberline. In the E Mediterranean basin and in southernmost European areas like Spain that are still subject to overgrazing, Amelanchier appears to be rare and endangered according to the IUCN red list at current national levels.

Unknown in Lebanon prior to 1930 (Boulomoy 1930), Amelanchier parviflora var. libanotica was first reported in 1933 exclusively in the relatively preserved mountain range of North-Lebanon, i.e. in the vicinity of Bcharré and Ehden (Samuelsson 1935: 386, as A. ovalis; Browicz 1971: 8); near Ehden, between Bcharré and the cedars (Mouterde 1970: 206); and among the cedars (Zohary 1973: 374). It was not observed since then (“not found recently”, Tohmé & Tohmé 2007: 529), but was found again in Beqaa Kafra, not far from the cedars of Bcharré (Tohmé & Tohmé 2014). All those populations are located near 1700 m in altitude. We can now add three North-Lebanon localities to the one recently found by Tohmé & Tohmé (2014), and our two new Mount-Lebanon localities corroborate the presence of this rare taxon scattered throughout the country. The great dispersion of the few extant populations shows that Amelanchier, which we have now observed from 1200 m up to 2200 m, is probably a constituent of a formerly more widespread woody vegetation formation. Its discovery in Qalaat Aarouba (Akkar) largely expands its known northward distribution in Lebanon, rendering possible contact with populations in Mt Amanus and Anatolia.

In all the mentioned localities, only a few individuals of Amelanchier could be traced. Those at higher altitudes, as in Bcharré, Ehden, Qalaat Aarouba and Sannine, are confined to escarpments far from animals' teeth and are associated with typical “mountain étage” shrub formations composed of Rhamnus, Sorbus, etc. In Ehden, Amelanchier grows with representative trees and shrubs of mesophilous Mediterranean mountain woods (Stephan & al. 2016), such as Arbutus andrachne L., Daphne oleoides, Ostrya carpinifolia, Q. cerris L., Quercus infec-toria Oliv. and Q. kotschyana O. Schwarz. In the Mount Arouba locality, mixed Abies cilicica (Antoine & Kotschy) Carrière and Cedrus libani A. Rich. are still well represented at an elevation of 1700 m, whereas dense forest is completely destroyed above 1850 m and Juniperus excelsa is represented only by old, isolated individuals sacked by shepherds. Increasing observations of recently introduced mouflons (Ovis cf. gmelini) in Ehden (fide Bouchra Douaihy, Lebanese University, pers. comm.) could compromise the survival of these shrub communities. In Baskinta, A. parviflora var. libanotica is found on sandstone, mixed with additional species such as Pinus pinea, Rhododendron ponticum L., Fraxinus ornus and Juniperus oxycedrus. Anyway, the Lebanese Amelanchier taxon is rare and threatened at the southernmost distribution limit of A. parviflora, because most of the subpopulations comprise only one to three individuals (more only in Aruba), and the genus Amelanchier is not known to occur in Israel (Zohary 1972; Danin 2004).

Up to now, naturalized, partly invasive, exotic Amelanchier species have been reported only from temperate European ecosystems (Schroeder 1970), and the plants on sale have always belonged to the same “Nordic group species” for a century (Bean 1950; Soupe 2016; Vannucci 2016). But landscaping development around Mediterranean conurbations (i.e. most lowland parts of Lebanon!) and increasing tourism (Ehden and Bcharré hold massive tourism activities including hotel development and ski resorts) could lead to ecological and genetic disturbances through hybridization of imported woody ornamentals with native taxa (see Pyrus calleryana Decne., Culley & Hardiman 2007) and probably to an inexorable expansion of the noxious phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells & al.

A. Fridlender & J. Stephan

Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald

+ Gr: Greece: C Makedonia, Nomos of Pella, Eparchia of Almopia, Mt Pinovo, 41°07′28.04″N, 22°04′10.74″E, 1250 m, stream bank and damp roadside in beech forest, parent rock trachyte and andesite, 3 Jul 2018, Chasapis 2466 (TAUF); ibid., Mt Garefiou Almopias, 41°03′54″N, 22°00′30.13″E, 1120 m, damp roadside in beech forest, parent rock schist, 7 Jul 2019, Chasapis 2468 (TAUF). – A circumboreal perennial tall herb, not mentioned for Greece in either Euro+Med (2006+) or Dimopoulos & al. (2013, 2016). Its southern distribution limit in the Balkan Peninsula was supposed to be located in N Albania (Tutin & al. 1968: 6) and North Macedonia (Micevski 1998). Its occurrence in Greece was first recorded in 2018 on Mt Pinovo, where a population of approximately 300 individuals was found along a streambank and damp roadsides in a beech forest, at an altitude of 1250 m, on volcanic substratum.

M. Chasapis, D. A. Samaras, K. Theodoropoulos & E. Eleftheriadou

Scrophulariaceae (incl. Buddlejaceae)

Nicodemia madagascariensis (Lam.) R. Parker (≡ Buddleja madagascariensis Lam. ≡ Adenoplea madagascariensis (Lam.) Eastw.) – Fig. 14.

Fig. 14.

Nicodemia madagascariensis, detail of flowering plant. – Tunisia: Monastir, Monastir city, near post office la Republique-Rue Hédi Khefacha, 29 Feb 2020, photograph by R. El Mokni.

img-ARMc_305.jpg

A Tn: Tunisia: Bizerta, Bizerta city, 37°16′11″N, 09°52′27″E, 5 m, few individuals near a public garden, 3 Mar 2015, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir); ibid., Monastir, Monastir city, 35°46′25″N, 10°49′05″E, 22 m, very tough population in an old building, 29 Feb 2020, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir); ibid., Frina, toward Monastir city, 35°44′25″N, 10°49′19″E, 3 m, 2 or 3 individuals near roadside, 21 Feb 2019, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir); ibid., Menzel Nour, 35°40′31″N, 10°46′58″E, 41 m, a single vigorous individual, 21 Feb 2019, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir). – Nicodemia madagascariensis, a scandent shrub with branches 6–7 m long, is a native taxon of Madagascar (Madagascar Catalogue 2016) that has been introduced as an ornamental plant and is naturalized in the U.S.A. (Florida), Mexico, the West Indies, South America (Argentina, Uruguay), Africa, India, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Fiji and Hawaii (Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong 2012; Norman 2012; PROTA 2016; USDA-ARS 2016; PIER 2018). The taxon has been reported in the Mediterranean region as a casual alien in Sicily (Pasta & al. 2016) and Greece (Dimopoulos 2013: 151, 265; Vladimirov & al. 2019). Moreover, the species is reported as cultivated in Cyprus (Valdés 2012+a) and in Libya (El-Gadi 1987), even though the African Plant Database (APD 2020) does not report its occurrence in N Africa. Therefore, its citation here as a casual alien constitutes the first report of this taxon for the flora of Tunisia and N Africa. The easily dispersed seeds and the ability of the plant to regenerate from stem fragments facilitates its naturalization in many areas of the world (GISD 2015).

R. El Mokni

Solanaceae

Brugmansia suaveolens (Willd.) Sweet (≡ Datura suaveolens Willd.)

A Tn: Tunisia: Bizerta, Bizerta city, 37°18′03″N, 09°51′54″E, 10 m, among ornamental plants on roadsides, 21 May 2019, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir). – A casual alien species new for the flora of Tunisia. Brugmansia suaveolens is a shrubby tree native to South America that has escaped cultivation to invade residential areas throughout much of South and Central America, Mexico, the U.S.A. (parts of SC Florida and further north) and Australia (GBIF 2015b; USDA-ARS 2016; USDA-NRCS 2016). In Europe, the species is considered only as naturalized in the Azores, on São Miguel, Santa Maria and Faial Islands (Valdés 2012+b; GBIF 2015b). For N Africa, it is reported only as introduced (alien with unknown status) in the Canary Islands and Morocco (Valdés 2012+b; APD 2020).

R. El Mokni & G. Domina

Datura wrightii Regel – Fig. 15.

A BH: Bosnia-Herzegovina: Mostar, quarter Pasjak, 43°21′00″N, 17°48′50″E, 76 m, rubbish tips, three individuals, two of which were large and well developed with ripening fruits, 29 Jul 2019, Maslo (SARA 51983).

A Ct: Croatia: Dalmatia, Split, Omiš, 43°26′26″N, 16°39′23″E, 1 m, sandy beach along Adriatic coast, six well-developed individuals with ripening fruits, 28 Jul 2013, Maslo (photo); ibid., Korčula, Vela Luka, 42°57′21″N, 16°42′35″E, 19 m, ruderal sites along Greben shipyard, four well-developed individuals, 19 Jul 2019, Maslo (obs.). – Datura wrightii is a native species of the SW United States and Mexico, but is widely cultivated as an ornamental in warm-temperate regions around the world. It is much reminiscent of D. inoxia Mill., and both have been confused for quite a long time, especially in the Mediterranean area (Verloove 2008). It was shown that in some areas, e.g. in France or Corsica (Lambinon 2006; Tison & Foucault 2014), only D. wrightii is present, whereas in other areas both are found, e.g. in Spain and Italy (Galasso & al. 2018; Verloove & al. 2019), D. wrightii often being the predominant species. Conversely, in the Canary Islands only D. inoxia has been reliably recorded so far (pers. obs. of first author).

Fig. 15.

Datura wrightii, detail of fruiting plant. – Croatia: Dalmatia, Split, Omiš, sandy beach along Adriatic coast, 28 Jul 2013, photograph by S. Maslo.

img-AgQa_305.jpg

Table 1.

Selected discriminating characters of Bupleurum aequiradiatum, B. commutatum and B. gerardi.

img-z27-2_305.gif

Datura inoxia was recently reported for the first time from the area of former Yugoslavia (Maslo & Šarić 2019). The plant depicted, however, clearly refers to D. wrightii. On closer examination (herbarium and photo material) it turned out that D. wrightii has been recorded at least three times from this area, once from Bosnia-Herzegovina and twice from Croatia. Like elsewhere in the Mediterranean region, it is probably locally naturalized and increasing.

Datura wrightii and D. inoxia are easily distinguished. The very short, incurved and eglandular hairs of D. wrightii give it a downy appearance, especially on new growth. Plants may even appear virtually glabrous. This contrasts with the very distinct, long, erect glandular hairs of D. inoxia. In addition, D. wrightii has markedly larger corollas (14–26 cm vs 12–16 cm) and, as a result, has more ornamental value than D. inoxia.

S. Maslo & F. Verloove

Lycianthes rantonnei (Carrière) Bitter (≡ Solanum rantonnei Carrière)

A Tn: Tunisia: Monastir-Sousse, 35°46′08″N, 10°45′58″E, 5 m, among ornamental plants on roadsides, 26 Feb 2020, El Mokni (herb. Univ. Monastir). – A casual alien species new for the flora of Tunisia and N Africa. Lycianthes rantonnei is native to South America (Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil; Gallego 2012) and is widely cultivated in many regions of the world as an ornamental shrub, mainly in warm-temperate and subtropical areas. In Europe, the species is reported from Spain, as naturalized in Málaga province and Catalunya (Sáez & al. 2016; Verloove & al. 2019) and as subspontaneous in Madrid (Gallego 2012).

R. El Mokni & G. Domina

Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)

Bupleurum aequiradiatum (H. Wolff) Snogerup & B. Snogerup

+ Tu(A): Turkey: Bithyn[ia], prope Brussam, in fruticetis, Jul 1874, Pichler (BP 274226, as Bupleurum gerardi Jacq. [non All.]). – Wolff (1910), in the protologue of his B. commutatum var. aequiradiatum H. Wolff, indicated that the taxon occurs in Bithynia (NW Anatolia), Crimea and the Balkan Peninsula. Snogerup & Snogerup (2001) accepted it at species rank and indicated only the Balkan Peninsula for the distribution, because no specimens were seen from Bithynia and Crimea. Stoyanov (2019) revisited the distribution of the species and also concluded that it is a Balkan endemic. The present record is the first confirming the distribution of B. aequiradiatum in Bithynia in support of Wolff's earlier statement. Bupleurum aequiradiatum and B. commutatum Boiss. & Balansa are similar to some extent, in habit and in having 5–8 rays in the top umbels, but are quite different in a number of other characters (Table 1).

S. Stoyanov

Bupleurum commutatum Boiss. & Balansa

– Cm: The occurrence of Bupleurum commutatum in the Crimean Peninsula was based on two records of A. S. Callier (Sudak, Abhänge des Sokoll, Callier 56; Steingeröll des Sokoll bei Sudak, Callier 97). Wolff (1910) assigned them to B. commutatum [var. typicum] f. tauricum. Snogerup & Snogerup (2001) accepted Callier's records as belonging to B. commutatum. In the same work, they simultaneously referred Callier 97 to B. gerardiAll. Callier 97 (BP 415151, 641156) was examined carefully in the herbarium of the Hungarian Natural History Museum and it was found that two specimens belong to B. gerardi on account of their small petals, 0.4–0.5 mm wide (vs petals 0.8–0.9 mm wide in B. commutatum). In addition, Callier 56JE 00022384) was examined via Virtual Herbaria JACQ ( https://herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/). The individuals of that specimen are in the fruiting stage and it was found that the styles are only 0.1–0.2 mm long, shorter than the mericarp width, a character that corresponds to B. gerardi (vs styles 0.4–0.5 mm long in B. commutatum). The errors in the determination can be explained by the most important diagnostic characters in Bupleurum being flower and fruit details, which often are less than 1 mm in size. Finally, it should be emphasized that 20 correctly determined specimens of B. gerardi from SE and S parts of the Crimean Peninsula were seen in the Moscow Digital Herbarium ( https://plant.depo.msu.ru/), most of which were collected in the same area of Callier's records cited above, whereas materials of B. commutatum from Crimea are absent. Therefore, it is necessary to exclude B. commutatum from the Crimean flora, because all known records in fact are referable to B. gerardi. Bupleurum commutatum and B. gerardi are similar in having 5–8 very unequal rays in the top umbels, but are quite different in a number of other characters (Table 1).

S. Stoyanov

Bupleurum gerardi All.

A Se: Serbia: Toplac, distr. Vranja, in vinetis, July, Ilić (BP 274073, as Bupleurum commutatum Boiss. & Balansa). – According to Snogerup & Snogerup (2001), all or some of the European occurrences of B. gerardi may represent old introductions. In fact, B. gerardi was first described from France in 1774, in an area where it is not native (where it had been introduced earlier from the E Mediterranean, perhaps by shipping). Its natural range comprises Crimea, Transcaucasia, Anatolia and the Middle East. Outside that area, mostly in S Europe, B. gerardi appears as a ruderal and casual. Recently, Stoyanov (2019) revisited its Balkan distribution and found that all records from Bulgaria are referable to B. commutatum. The only certain Balkan records of B. gerardi in the are those from the mid-19th century from the Croatian islands of Torzola and Lesina (Snogerup & Snogerup 2001). The present record is the first of this species for the Balkan mainland, as well as for Serbia, and most likely it is a casual alien.

S. Stoyanov

Acknowledgements

The work of A. Molnár V. and his collaborators was supported by a grant from the Hungarian Research Fund (NKFI–OTKA K132573). R. A. Murtazaliev's work was supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (no. 19-04-00658). S. Stoyanov's research received support from the Synthesys+ Project ( http://www.synthesys.info/) funded by the European Commission (Grant HU-TAF-2472). S. Rätzel and coauthors of the notula on Orobanche lucorum are thankful to Prof. P. A. Schmidt (Dresden) for information on Berberis in the Caucasus. N. Korotkova, G. Parolly and E. von Raab-Straube thank the Verein der Freunde des Botanischen Gartens Berlin-Dahlem e.V. for a travel grant to the North Caucasus. S. Rätzel & M. Ristow thank R. Hand (Berlin) for information to the flora of Cyprus and Th. Raus (Berlin) for helpful literature hints. P. Uotila (Helsinki) is thanked for interpreting labels of Buglossoides specimens from Finland. Four anonymous reviewers are thanked for their comments on earlier versions of parts of these Notulae.

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© 2020 The Authors · This open-access article is distributed under the CC BY 4.0 licence
Eckhard von Raab-Straube and Thomas Raus "Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 12," Willdenowia 50(2), 305-341, (17 July 2020). https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.50.50214
Received: 18 November 2019; Accepted: 22 June 2020; Published: 17 July 2020
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