Bufo japonicus formosus (Eastern-Japanese common toad) is endemic to Eastern Japan. As with many Japanese amphibians, little is known about its terrestrial life, especially during the nonbreeding season. This species persists even in highly disturbed urban areas where many other amphibian species have already been extirpated. An understanding of how such species use habitats within remnant landscapes may help to inform management strategies for the conservation of urban ecosystems. We examined the nightly movement patterns, distance traveled, movement range, and microhabitat selection of non-breeding adult B. j. formosus at an urbanized site, using fluorescent powder tracking. We evaluated the usefulness of this tracking method through this survey. We found that the nightly distances traveled by these toads varied greatly among individuals and nights. No sexual differences in movement pattern, distance traveled, and movement range were detected. However, body size significantly affected distance traveled and movement range. We found that toads tended to use areas covered with grasses and mosses more frequently than expected, and to avoid paved areas. Fluorescent powder tracking was effective for the elucidation of movement patterns and habitat selection of amphibians. Our results provide useful information for the conservation of amphibians, especially for species inhabiting urbanized areas.
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