Translator Disclaimer
1 June 2004 The genus Xyleus (Acridoidea, Romaleidae, Romaleinae)
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

The Neotropical genus Xyleus is revised. All existing types were examined, and many specimens from several large collections in different museums borrowed for study. A general confusion regarding Xyleus' species and their geographical distribution was found in the existing literature. Of the 25 specific names published between 1817 and 1935, only 13 were found to be valid, either as species or subspecies. Five new species and 1 new subspecies are described in this revision. The most reliable characters for the separation of species were found in the phallic complex.

According to the materials studied, the genus has a discontinuous geographical distribution. A northern section includes Southeast Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. A southern section includes most of Brasil, Paraguay, Uruguay, parts of Argentina, Bolivia and Perú. Most species of the genus have been found north of parallel 4°N or south of parallel 5°S. While in the northern area only subspecies of Xyleus discoideus have been found, all known species of the genus are present in the southern one.

Specimens of all species are figured, together with important characters for their identification. Maps of the known distribution of all species are given.

Introduction

In some romaleine genera, the species are difficult to identify by means of existing descriptions and other data in the literature. The genus Xyleus is an outstanding example of this situation: study of the published data, reveals a general confusion regarding the identity and status of its species and their geographical distribution.

During a visit to the Museum of Paris in 1982, the subject of Xyleus came to light in a conversation with Marius Descamps. We found then that both of us had independently been doing some preliminary work on it and had seen that, contrary to what happens in other romaleid genera, the phallic complex was in this case very useful for the identification of species. We agreed then to undertake a revision of the genus together, and Marius gave me copies of some sketches he had made of the male genitalia of several species of the genus. Unfortunately, a few days after I left Paris, he fell gravely ill, and did not recover enough to be able to work again before his death in 1996. So I continued working on the subject by myself, finally arriving at the results recorded here on the taxonomy and geographical distribution of the species of the genus. I dedicate this paper to the memory of my dear friend Marius Descamps, who should have been its co-author.

The genus Tropinotus Audinet-Serville (1831: 272) (usually cited as Serville in the literature on Orthoptera), included, according to its author, 2 divisions. In the first were Gryllus serratus Linnaeus and T. discoideus n. sp. In the second, only the species T. obsoletus n. sp. was included (from the Cape of Good Hope according to Serville, but actually a neotropical species). The genus Prionolopha was erected by Stål (1873b: 27) for Gryllus (Bulla) serratus Linnaeus, and the genus Colpolopha (1873b: 28) for his species C. sinuata. Pictet & Saussure (1887: 338) transferred Serville's T. obsoletus to Colpolopha, thus leaving T. discoideus as the only member of the genus Tropinotus. This genus is now called Xyleus, according to the information on its taxonomy given below.

Index to specific names

Twenty-six species were described between 1817 and 1935 under the different names given to the genus: none of them under Xyleus. No synonymies have been formally made before the present paper, though there is an indication by Liebermann (1942: 25) that his species Diedronotus uvarovi might be the same as Tropinotus insignis Giglio-Tos, and a comment by Descamps (1975: 52) to the effect that specimens that had been identified as Diedronotus mexicanus Bruner and D. centralis Rehn seemed identical to him. According to the present work, the genus includes 16 valid species (one of them with 3 subspecies), of which 5 (and 1 subspecies) are here described. Eleven nominal species are synonymized in this paper, and one is eliminated as nomen dubium et oblitum.

In the list that follows, specific (or subspecific) names are in alphabetical order. Another order judged to be more related to the taxonomy of the group is followed in the text. Numbers given after each of the names correspond to those given to the species in the text. Names set in boldface are valid, all other names correspond to junior synonyms or are invalid for other reasons. Generic names in parenthesis are those under which the corresponding species were described.

  1. affinis (Bruner 1906) (Tropinotus) (= discoideus)

  2. aimara n. sp

  3. amabilis (Bolivar 1909) (Diedronotus) (= laevipes)

  4. andinus n. sp.

  5. angulatus (Stål 1873) (Tropinotus) (ssp. of discoideus)

  6. araguaia n. sp.

  7. attenuatus (Rehn 1909) (Tropinotus)

  8. camposi (Bolivar 1909) (Paralcamenes)

  9. centralis (Rehn 1918) (Diedronotus) (= mexicanus)

  10. conspersus (Bruner 1900) (Tropidonotus) (= insignis)

  11. discoideus (Serville 1831) (Tropinotus)

  12. fuscipennis (Bruner 1911) (Diedronotus) (= discoideus)

  13. goias n. sp

  14. gracilis (Bruner 1905) (Tropinotus)

  15. guarani (Rehn 1907) (Tropinotus)

  16. insignis (Giglio Tos 1894) (Tropidonotus)

  17. laevipes (Stål 1878) (Trapidonotus)

  18. laufferi (Bolivar 1891) (Tropidonotus)

  19. lineatus (Bruner 1906) (Tropinotus)

  20. mexicanus (Bruner 1906) (Tropinotus) (ssp. of discoideus)

  21. modestus (Giglio Tos 1894) (Tropidonotus)

  22. panteli (Bolivar 1902) (Tropidonotus) (= modestus)

  23. parvus (Bolivar 1909) (Diedronotus) (= regularis)

  24. pirapora n. sp

  25. regularis (Bruner 1905) (Tropinotus)

  26. rosulentus (Stål 1878) (Trapidonotus) (ssp. of discoideus)

  27. scabripes (Stål 1878) (Trapidonotus) (= discoideus)

  28. schulzi (Bruner 1900) (Tropidonotus) (= modestus)

  29. strigatus (Bruner 1910) (Tropinotus) (= modestus)

  30. tuberculatum Palissot 1817 (Acridium) (nomen dubium / oblitum)

  31. uvarovi (Liebermann 1935) (Diedronotus) (= insignis)

  32. venezuelae n ssp. (of discoideus)

The following species have been in the past assigned to Tropinotus but are now not placed in Xyleus:

  • Tropinotus serratus (Linnaeus 1758) Serville 1831. (Prionolpha, Romaleidae)

  • Tropinotus obsoletus Serville 1831. (Colpolopha, Romaleidae)

  • Tropinotus sulcaticollis Blanchard 1851 (Catreolus, Ommexechidae)

  • Tropinotus ornaticollis Blanchard 1851 (Catreolus, Ommexechidae)

  • Tropinotus angusticollis Blanchard 1851 (Tropidostethus, Tristiridae)

  • Tropinotus granulatus Stål 1875 (Alcamenes, Romaleidae)

  • Tropinotus australasiae (Leach 1814) Walker 1870 (Goniaea, Acrididae, Australian)

  • Tropinotus cinnamomeus Serville 1839 (= Goniaea australasiae, Acrididae, Australian)

  • Materials and methods

    The specimens used for this work have been, for the most part, borrowed from different museums (see the list of repositories, Appendix I). Many have been collected by the author. Methods used are the usual in taxonomic studies; however, the following indications seem relevant.

    Genitalia.— Examination of male genitalia is necessary for the identification of species of this genus. Many species are alike in their external morphology, but clearly differ by their phallic complex. A large number of specimens had to be dissected for this purpose. Genitalia were dissected and cleaned by the usual methods. KOH solution was always used at room temperature. The shape and sculpture of the apical valves of the endophallus provide important taxonomic characters. In many instances, however, these valves are heavily sclerotized and of a very dark color, which makes the observation of details very difficult. In these cases a modification of the technique proposed by Fragoso (1980) was used to bleach these structures. After being dissected and cleaned in KOH, the phallic complex is put in a solution of a formula used for the bleaching of hair. The product used in the present study is a mixture of sodium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and ammonium chloride in equal parts by weight, dissolved in concentrated (30 vol.) hydrogen peroxide. Small portions of solution should be made immediately before use by putting a small amount of the mixed powdered chemicals in a vial and covering them with enough hydrogen peroxide. The piece to be bleached is left in this solution for a length of time that varies in each case but usually does not exceed 30 min. This treatment effects a partial bleaching of the darkest parts of the phallic complex allowing its detailed study. Following bleaching, the piece is washed in water and may be stained with alcoholic solution of mercurochrome if necessary, or just washed in ethyl alcohol before transferring it to glycerin for its keeping and observation.

    Measurements.—Measures were taken with a sliding stage with which displacement is registered by an attached dial caliper. Accuracy is in the range of 1/10 of a millimeter. Measurements made are those indicated in Fig. 47.

    Colors.—These are named according to the nomenclature of Smithe (1975). Colors indicated in the descriptions are to be taken very generally: shades and hues vary widely in different specimens of the same species.

    Wing venation.—The nomenclature of Ragge (1955) has been followed in all cases.

    Distribution maps.—Approximate coordinates of the localities of collection were measured in order to place them on maps. Considering that many records in the literature are due to misidentifications, only the localities on the labels of the specimens examined were used for these maps.

    Genus XYLEUS Gistel 1848

    Several authors have given their opinions about the proper name for this genus. Caudell (1932) mentions that the name Tropinotus Kuhl 1822 (Reptilia) antecedes Tropinotus Serville 1831, but that on the opinion of Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, Kuhl's name would be a nomen nudum. Tropidonotus Stål (1878a, b), proposed as an emendation of Tropinotus, could not be used because Tropidonotus Boie 1826 (Reptilia) was a valid name. He concluded that the name Xyleus Gistel 1848, proposed to replace Tropinotus Serville, should be used, while Tropidonotus Stål 1878138 and Diedronotus Bolivar 1906 should be considered junior synonyms of Xyleus. Uvarov (1940) discussed the case again, arriving at the same conclusion. Roberts (1937) refers to the above opinion of Caudell, pointing to the fact that if Tropinotus Kuhl was a nomen nudum as indicated by Caudell, Tropinotus Serville would be valid and should be used for this genus.

    The validity of Xyleus Gistel as the proper name for this genus would hence depend on the status of Tropinotus Kuhl (Kuhl & Hasselt, Isis 1822: 474; Kuhl 1824: 81). I have consulted Dr. M.S. Hoogmoed and Dr. T.C. Avila-Pires of the Department of Herpetology of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum in Leiden on the subject of the status of Tropinotus Kuhl 1822. After a study of the pertinent literature and discussion with other members of the staff, they informed me that Tropinotus Kuhl 1822 is an available name on the terms of article 11.(c),(i) of the International Code of Zoological nomenclature. It was not associated to any specific name (not necessary for names published before 1931), but in both papers mentioned above (1822, 1824) there are brief descriptions of the genus. Tropidonotus Boie (Isis 1826: 982, 1827: 474) described and associated with a specific name in Reptilia, is without doubt an available name. Hence, the name Xyleus Gistel 1848 is the proper name for the present romaleid genus.

    I have not found any further discussion on the status of Xyleus after the above mentioned papers of Roberts 1937 and Uvarov 1940, but this generic name has been generally adopted in subsequent literature.

    Etymology.—According to Brown (1956: 864, 870) the word xyleus (from the Greek, xylon = wood) means wood-cutter. Most species of the genus, by their color and color-pattern, look like chips of wood, and this is probably the origin of this name as applied to them.

    Distribution.— (Figs 36, 46). According to the specimens available for this work, the genus has a discontinuous geographical distribution. It is found in southern South America, east of the Andes between parallels 5° and 35° S and meridians 34° 55′ and 76° 50′ W (the only exception being X. camposi). In northern South America and Central America it occurs between parallels 4° and 21° N and meridians 61° 13′ and 104° W. I have seen no specimens from any part of the continent between 5° S and 4° N, which includes the main course of the Amazon River and part of the Guianas. Many localities in the Brasilian part of this zone have been well collected by Dr. Campos-Seabra's collectors, some in French Guiana by Marius Descamps, and several in the Peruvian part by Amedegnato and Poulain, but no specimens of this genus have been found. An exception is the species X. camposi coming from Posorja, Ecuador, west of the Andes, at 2° 35′ S. Another is a single specimen of X. goias (labeled as from Amapa State) which I suspect of being mislabeled.

    Another interesting fact regarding this geographical distribution, is that all specimens collected in the northern area belong to subspecies of Xyleus discoideus, which is the species found along the Atlantic coast in southern South America. It seems probable that this species migrated along the coast from Northeastern Brasil to Venezuela, Colombia and Central America. However, the mouth of the Amazon River, one of the rainiest areas of the Amazonian main course, seems at present an uncrossable barrier for the species; though of course, conditions there have certainly changed through the ages. Also, Xyleus discoideus like other species of the genus, is a weak flier, and its flying across any part of the Amazon River, such as it is now, is unthinkable. The antiquity of the South American romaleines is not known with any certainty, but they are probably among the oldest groups of autochtonous neotropical acridoids. Amedegnato (1993:69) states that they “may be the most primitive of true acridians”. It has been postulated (but not proved), that the Amazonian basin was open to the Pacific before the lower Miocene. If so, the passage of X. discoideus along the Atlantic coast might have taken place by dry land, at the time when the Amazonian basin was open to the Pacific and before the rising of the corresponding part of the Andes. But as far as I know, the passage of X. discoideus to the north along the Atlantic coast or by any other route, is at present a matter of speculation.

    The center of origin of this genus is indeed the region in south-central South America that includes the Brasilian states of Goias, Mato Grosso, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais and also northern Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and parts of Peru east of the Andes. In this region all the species of the genus are found.

    Habitat.—According to some records in the bibliography, and my own observations in the field, most species of Xyleus inhabit dry forests and savanna, and in general, places with scattered trees or bushes, or the edges and more open parts of forests (Astacio-Cabrera 1975; Bucher 1974; Descamps 1975, 1976; Rowell 1987). The only species that is always found in the prairie habitat seems to be Xyleus laevipes (Bruner 1900, my own records).

    Food-plants, economic importance.—Gangwere & Ronderos (1975) describe the mandibles of several species of Xyleus as of the forbivorous type, and indicate that the analysis of feces reveals that they are unselectively polyphagous in their food habits. In many publications attacks on diverse crops, particularly sugarcane and tobacco, are recorded, but the damage observed is said to be unimportant. In general, species of this genus have not been reported as of much economic importance.

    Cytology.—Most records on the chromosomes of the species of Xyleus are summarized in Mesa et al. 1983. Of the 9 species there recorded (attenuatus, discoideus, gracilis, insignis, laevipes, modestus and 3 unidentified species) 8 have a chromosomic formula 23 (2n, m)–24 (2n, f) X0 (m) XX (f). The only one with a different formula is X. laevipes, with 22-22-XY-XX.

    Taxonomy.—Type-species: Tropinotus discoideus Serville. This is the only species associated with this genus in its original description that has not been posteriorly removed from it. Its status as its type-species is indicated by Rehn (1907: 170) and Kirby (1910: 359).

    The romaleine genera most closely related seem to be Prionolpha Stål, Colpolopha Stål (Figs 1, 2) and Securigera Bolivar. Differences between the first two genera are summarized in Table 1 (see also Fig. 1). Securigera has no significant differences with Prionolopha, and these names are probably synonyms. Differences with other romaleines that have a crested pronotum, such as Alcamenes, Taenipoda, Titanacris, Tropidacris and others are great, and become evident just by comparing specimens of them with the habitus figures in this work.

    Rowell & Flook's (1998) study of ribosomal DNA sequences in acridoids only reveals the affinities of Xyleus with other romaleines they studied (Zoniopoda, Phaeoparia, Abila), and with some genera of ommexechids. The genera indicated above as related to Xyleus were not included in their study.

    Characters of genus.—Grasshoppers in this genus are medium-sized. Among 219 specimens measured in this study, the largest and smallest are the following (from frons to end of tegmina, or to end of abdomen in the case of X. camposi):

    Males: largest ones— 49 mm (rosulentus), 45 mm (mexicanus), 44 mm (discoideus). smallest ones— 31 mm (guarani), 32 mm (modestus, regularis).

    Females: largest ones, 70 mm (rosulentus), 63 mm (discoideus), 62 mm (mexicanus). smallest ones— 37 mm (camposi), 40 mm (guarani, modestus, regularis).

    Head: antennae flattened, from slightly to moderately ensiform; eyes large, elyptical, moderately prominent, more so in males than females; vertex prolonged before eyes in a triangular fastigium, somewhat excavated dorsally; dorsal median carinula running from fastigium to occiput. Pronotum: dorsal carina elevated, crest-like, cut by 3 transverse sulci; lateral carinae prominent, diverging caudad; lateral lobes vertical, in definite angle with disk; prosternal tubercle compressed or swollen, always retrorse. Meso- and metasternal spaces subquadrate. Tegmina and wings well developed in all known species excepting X. camposi which is brevialate. Tegmina (Fig. 4) rather narrow, with marked precostal lobe and variously shaped apices. Wings (Fig. 4) wide, stridulatory area well developed in both sexes. The remigium rather narrow, usually colored in shades of brown, fuscous or umber, like the tegmina. Vannum is the wings' most characteristic part. What are apparently veins A1 and A2 are placed close together, and between them runs a series of strong, denticulated arched veinlets acting as scrapers during stridulation. Behind them, between A2 and A3, which are widely separated, there is a hyaline area with marked crossveins, likely a radiating area during stridulation. The whole margin of the vannal area is marked by a dusky band of the same color as the remigium, which is rather wide at its limit with the remigium but gradually narrows backwards. The rest of the vannum, between this dusky band and the hyaline resonatory area, is colored in variable shadows of scarlet to orange. This color may be different in different species, and is also somewhat variable within each species. The stridulating apparatus as described above is common to most romaleines. Legs not particularly strong except hind ones: hind femora with well marked carinae, the median dorsal one more or less markedly serrulate, the upper external and medial ventral ones frequently so. Brunner´s organ present. Hind tibiae armed with rather large spines, apical external one present in all known species. Abdomen with auditive organ on 1st segment. Male abdominal terminalia with dorsum of 10th segment deeply incised medially, epiproct rhomboidal, cerci straight, subconical, subgenital plate apically pointed. Male genitalia species-specific; form of cingulum and apical endophallic valves particularly useful as species characters. Female with ovipositor of the soil-laying type.

    Characters used for the description of species

    From a study of the pertinent literature, it has been found that the following characters have been used in most cases, to define the different species.

    Colors and color-pattern.—These are not usable without an under-standing of how they vary within each species. Some species have fairly uniform colors and color pattern (e.g., X. laevipes) while in others both are highly variable. In X. insignis for example, specimens vary from a uniformly green coloration to the most diverse patterns of buff, brown and fuscous. In some of the species-groups defined below, the same color-patterns may appear in individuals of different species. As used in most existing descriptions, these color characters are entirely unreliable.

    Shape of fastigium.—This is somewhat variable intraspecifically. Slight differences in form have no meaning for the definition of species.

    Pronotum.—Measurements made in this work show that the height of the pronotal crest is fairly variable within the same species. However, some species have a high, arcuate crest, while in others it is lower and almost straight. Such marked differences are definitely useful. Crenulation of pronotal crest is variable. In specimens of X. d. discoideus for example, these crenulations diminish in a geographic gradient from north to south. Some of the southernmost specimens may lack them altogether. Some species, however, may always have a crenulated crest, while in others the crest is always smooth throughout.

    Transverse sulci of pronotum: in some species these sulci are well marked, deep in some places, and the 4 lobes into which they divide the pronotal crest may be not entirely contiguous superiorly. In other species these sulci are less marked, and the different lobes always contiguous.

    Shape of the pronotum as seen from above is a valuable character, but the same shape can be seen in different species, for example in X. discoideus angulatus, X. modestus and X. discoideus venezuelae. This shape is, however, clearly distinguishable from the one seen in X. d. discoideus, X. andinus and X. discoideus rosulentus (Figs 5, 14, 21).

    Prosternal tubercle.—While fairly variable intraspecifically, each species has a characteristic pattern. Examining series of each species is useful for determining the extent of these variations. This may be a useful character when used in combination with others.

    Spines on hind tibiae.—Tibial spines vary in different species from 9 to 19. The number is slightly variable within each species, but in general can be taken as an auxiliary character. For example, this number varies from 9 to 11 in several species, from 15 to 16 in others, but no overlapping will occur in such a case. Tibial spines are rather large, the internal ones larger than the external.

    Tegmina.—(Fig. 4). Size of tegmina is somewhat variable within each species. The only brevialate species known is the Ecuadorian Xyleus camposi. The most reliable tegminal character seems to be the shape of their apices, though even this is subject to some intraspecific variation. Also in some species chromatic characters of the tegmina are of value, such as the presence and location of dark areas or markings. The color of these varies usually in shades of brown, fuscous or umber, but in some species some parts are green, particularly on the costal and anal areas.

    Wings.—(Fig. 4). Their color pattern is characteristic for the genus. Remigium and the edge of vannum are usually colored in shades of fuscous or umber; a large basal area of the vannum is colored in shades of scarlet or orange. There is in both sexes a well differentiated stridulatory area in the vannum, which is common to most romaleines. While colors and details of color pattern may be slightly different in different species, these differences are not marked and do not seem useful for purposes of species identification.

    Phallic complex.—Not generally used before the present paper to define the different species, it has proved to possess the most reliable characters (in some cases apparently the only ones) for the separation of the species. Shape of the cingulum and of the apical endophallic valves, is particularly useful.

    Geographical range.—While some species are totally or partially sympatric, others are entirely allopatric, their ranges being clearly separated. For example, such is the case with 3 species which are externally similar: X. modestus from Central Brasil-Paraguay-Eastern Bolivia-Central Argentina; X. discoideus angulatus from NE Brasil, and X. discoideus venezuelae from Venezuela.

    Species Groups

    The different species of the genus can be grouped either by their external characters or by the characters of the phallic complex. No way has been found to make groups combining in every case both sets of characters. The groups that have been made in this work are based mainly on the phallic complex. Some of them, however, comprise species that are similar also in their external anatomy, and this will be indicated in the treatment of each one. The following groups have been considered: Discoideus Species Group, including 5 subspecies of X. discoideus, namely X. d. discoideus, X. d. angulatus, X. d. venezuelae, X. d. rosulentus and X. d. mexicanus. To this group probably belongs also X. camposi. Laevipes Species Group, with X. laevipes, X. modestus, X. andinus. X. goias and X. regularis. Attenuatus Species Group, with X. attenuatus, X. araguaia, X. gracilis X. pirapora. and X. laufferi, and the Insignis Species Group, with X. insignis, X. aimara, X. lineatus and X. guarani.

    The principal characters of the above groups are given in Table 2.

    Discoideus Species Group (Figs 5, 6, 13)

    It includes what are here considered to be the most primitive species. This should be construed in the sense of the species having a phallic complex which does not greatly diverge from that found in most romaleines. In their external morphology and color pattern all its members are fairly similar. Included in this group are the 5 subspecies of Xyleus discoideus, namely discoideus, angulatus, mexicanus, rosulentus, and venezuelae. As said above, Xyleus camposi, whose male is unknown, may belong in this group.

    Being composed of 5 subspecies of a single species, this group is in every sense very uniform. Its species are dull-colored in various shades and hues of umber, fuscous and brown, and some of them russet or hazel. Some specimens of any of the subspecies may have some dull-green coloration in the upper parts of the body and tegmina, but this condition is uncommon. Within each of the species, the color-pattern of the different individuals is very variable; no 2 individuals are exactly alike. For the present study I have examined more than 300 specimens of this species-group, without finding a single individual with colors other than those indicated above. The differences that allow the separation of the various subspecies lie mainly in the shape of the pronotum as seen from above, and in the phallic complex, especially the apical endophallic valves and the cingulum. Also the size varies somewhat in the different subspecies (see tables of measurements), specimens of X. d. angulatus, for example, being in general of a smaller size than those of the other subspecies.

    The species X. discoideus as a whole can be characterized as follows (differences among subspecies will be given below when referring to each of them). Pronotal crest high, especially on metazona. Transverse sulci of pronotum very well marked and deep: in side view some of the lobes into which they divide the pronotal crest are not entirely contiguous and show narrow gaps between them. The posterior part of the crest at least is usually crenulated (though this character is subject to some intra-subspecific variation). Hind femora very strong, with their median dorsal and ventral carinae strongly serrulated.

    Xyleus discoideus (Serville 1831)

    Taxonomy.—This species is treated here as polytypical. X. angulatus, X. rosulentus and X. mexicanus, considered in the past as separate species, differ from it, but very slightly, and so does X. venezuelae, here described. All these are treated here as subspecies of X. discoideus.

    Distribution.—(Figs 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46). Considering this species as a whole, it is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America (X. d. discoideus, X. d. angulatus) and also in Venezuela (X. d. venezuelae), Colombia (X. d. rosulentus) and Central America to Southeast Mexico (X. d. rosulentus, X. d. mexicanus). It seems probable that X. d. venezuelae extends into parts of Guyana (formerly British Guiana). South of the Amazon, the species occupies mainly the Atlantic coast, though in some places it reaches far inland.

    1. Xyleus discoideus discoideus (Serville 1831) (Figs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 37, 46, Table 3)

    Taxonomy.—Tropinotus discoideus was briefly described by Serville (1831: 273), and redescribed later (1839: 619) in a somewhat more extended form. Both descriptions are inadequate in the light of present knowledge. Most characters given in them are common to most subspecies of what is here referred to as the Discoideus Species Group, and some even to the whole genus Xyleus. In his first description Serville refers to male and female specimens. In the second one only a female is mentioned.

    The species Tropinotus discoideus, being that first described in what is now the genus Xyleus, must be considered as the type-species of this genus and is indicated as such by Rehn (1907: 170, genus Tropinotus) and later by Kirby (1910: 360, genus Diedronotus). Its type specimen, believed to be lost, was recently found in PARIS by Dr. Amedegnato, who has kindly compared it with specimens from the State of Rio de Janeiro and found it to be conspecific with them. Being the type-species of the genus, it seems very important to know to which species this name should be applied. Another reason for trying to identify this species, is the fact that it has been the most frequently mentioned in the literature among those of its genus. Many of these mentions will probably be due to misidentifications.

    Its type locality, given by Serville as “Brésil”, is not very helpful for this purpose. It seems, however, that for a specimen collected before 1831, some place in coastal Brasil is more probable than one inland. Also, Serville's indication of his type-specimen having denticulations on the posterior part of its pronotal crest, points to a specimen from the northern part of the known range of the species (see below). Rio de Janeiro, being an accessible place at that time, seems very probable as the type-locality.

    It is curious to notice that such an ill-defined species was taken in subsequent literature as the main reference for defining other members of the genus, which are compared with it in their descriptions. Out of 23 descriptions of other species, 12 refer to discoideus for comparison, pointing to similarities or differences with it to characterize the species under description. Also, the authors who refer to this species assign to it a very large geographical range that includes Colombia, British Guiana, different places in east Brasil, such as Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre, Uruguay, all of the provinces of Argentina from Misiones and Jujuy in the North to Buenos Aires in the South, and also southeast Bolivia and eastern Paraguay. In the light of the present revision, this suggests that all the taxa we consider in this work to be subspecies of X. discoideus and very probably other species as well, have been in the past identified as X. discoideus.

    Distribution.—(Fig. 37). According to the localities of collection of the specimens examined (see Appendix I) this species ranges along the Atlantic coast from southern Bahia State in Brasil to Uruguay and probably also the extreme north of the Province of Buenos Aires in Argentina. It extends inland to the west as far as Goias and Minas Gerais in Brasil, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Bolivia and the Argentinian provinces of Formosa and Chaco (eastern parts), Misiones, Corrientes and Entre Rios. This subspecies thus reaches to the west as far as the 60° meridian, more than 2000 km inland from its easternmost record on the Atlantic coast.

    Habitat.—I have observed this species in nature in Uruguay and in many localities in Brasil. It lives in places with trees, and prefers plant formations with rather scattered trees, in the case of woods, their edge or clearings. Is one of the few species that has managed to survive in parks and large gardens in cities and towns. I have never found it in prairie or open fields. The type of habitat described for this subspecies seems similar to that of other species I have collected, such as X. modestus and X. insignis.

    Identification.—Figures 3 - 7 and 13, together with what has been said on the coloration of the species group, will be enough for the identification of the species. It must be noticed (Fig. 5) that the pronotum as seen from above has the lateral angles of the metazona always rounded, never sharply angulated as in angulatus or venezuelae. Also its geographical distribution as stated above is important for its identification, other species sympatric with it can hardly be mistaken for the present subspecies of X. discoideus. The pattern of the dark markings on the tegmina is characteristic of X. discoideus in general, and shared with the other subspecies. Number of spines in hind tibiae: 10 to 11, rarely 9.

    2. Xyleus discoideus angulatus (Stål 1873135) new status (Figs 5, 8, 9, 13, Table 4)

    Taxonomy.—In much of the literature, this species has been mistaken for X. modestus and less frequently for other species. Whenever it is mentioned for regions different from northeast Brasil, it is certainly due to misidentifications.

    Distribution.—(Fig. 38). Northeastern Brasil, including the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara (southern part), Paraiba, Pernambuco, Alagoas (probably Sergipe) and Bahia. It is there a very common and abundant species. From an ecological point of view, it is worthy of notice that it is found in very different biogeographical provinces, including parts of Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantica of Cabrera & Willink (1973). Its limit with X. d. discoideus lies around parallel 16° S in southern Bahia, near the coast, coinciding approximately with the course of the Rio Jequitinhonha.

    Identification.—Figures 5, 6, 8, 9 and 13 depict the most important features for the identification of this subspecies. The shape of the pronotum as seen from above, with the sharply angulated sides of the metazona, is characteristic. The shape of the cingulum (Fig. 13) and of the apical endophallic valves (Fig. 6) is also important for identification. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 9 to 10.

    3. Xyleus discoideus venezuelae n. ssp. (Figs 5, 6, 10, 13, 39, 46, Table 5)

    Taxonomy.—The only bibliographical reference to this species is probably the one by Guagliumi (1962: 449) that lists it as Tropinotus angulatus (attacking sugarcane) in Venezuela. Among the subspecies of X. discoideus, it seems near to X. d. angulatus, but the characters mentioned below mark the difference.

    Distribution.—(Figs 39, 46). Specimens examined come from a large part of Venezuela north of parallel 7° and west of meridian 63°.

    Identification.—The characters for the identification of this subspecies are in Figs 5, 6, 10, and 13. Its prothorax as seen from above (Fig. 5) has the metazona angulate laterally, like X. d. angulatus. In its phallic complex, the cingulum (Fig. 13) and apical endophallic valves (Fig. 6) have characteristic shapes that allow its identification. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 10 to 11.

    4. Xyleus discoideus rosulentus (Stål 1878138) new status (Figs 5, 6, 11, 13, 40, 46, Table 6)

    Taxonomy.—Described by Stål as a separate species, but in the light of the present revision it seems more adequate to consider it a subspecies of X. discoideus.

    Distribution.—(Figs 40, 46). Easternmost Costa Rica, Panamá and Colombia as far east as meridian 73° W. Its limit with X. discoideus venezuelae described below, cannot be ascertained from the materal now at hand, but seems to lie somewhere near the border of Colombia and Venezuela. In Colombia it reaches south as far as parallel 4° N.

    Identification.—(Fig. 11). Its pronotum as seen from above shows the lateral angles of the metazona completely rounded (Fig. 5), without any traces of the angulation found in other subspecies. Characters of its cingulum (Fig. 13) and apical endophallic valves (Fig. 6) allow its easy identification. Spines on hind tibiae: 10 to 11.

    5. Xyleus discoideus mexicanus (Bruner 1906) new status (Figs 5, 6, 12, 13, 41, 46, Table 7)

    Taxonomy.—As in the case of X. rosulentus, it was described (by L. Bruner) as a separate species. I think it more adequate to treat this as a subspecies of X. discoideus, its differences with its typical subspecies being slight.

    Distribution.—(Figs 41, 46). Southeast Mexico, Central America to and including parts of Costa Rica. It is replaced east and south by X. d. rosulentus.

    Identification.—(Fig. 12). In dorsal view, its pronotum (Fig. 5) shows lateral angles almost rounded, but marked with small lateral points. Best characters for identification are in the phallic complex, especially in the cingulum (Fig. 13) and apical endophallic valves (Fig. 6). Number of spines on hind tibiae: 10 to 13.

    Laevipes Species Group

    By the structure of its phallic complex, the Laevipes group seems closely related to the Discoideus and includes X. laevipes, X. modestus, X. andinus, X. goias and X. regularis. It is rather heterogeneous, and is made mainly with the purpose of helping in the identification of the species of the genus. Apical endophallic valves (Fig. 15) are of the same general type as in the Discoideus group: short, massive and transversally grooved. Those of X. regularis are the most divergent within the group. The cingulum in all species is fairly similar (Fig. 13) and of the same general structure as in the Discoideus Group. In their external characters, the species in this group are more divergent. X. modestus and X. andinus have their pronotal crest higher, crenulated on its posterior part, with more marked transverse sulci. Also the color-pattern of their tegmina, with a series of dark markings of which the proximal one reaches the costal area, is very similar to the one found in species of the Discoideus Group. X. laevipes, X. regularis and X. goias have their pronotal crest smooth, without any crenulations or denticulations. This crest is relatively high in X. laevipes, lower in X. regularis and X. goias. Colors and color-patterns in the last 3 species are very different (see below).

    6. Xyleus laevipes (Stål 1878138) (Figs 13, 14, 15, 16, 42, 46, Table 8)

    Taxonomy.—This species has a very characteristic aspect and coloration, that makes it the easiest one within the genus to identify accurately. Its color is always predominantly lime-green; I have seen no specimens of the brown, chestnut or russet colors prevalent in other species. Its prairie and grassland habitat is also very characteristic. Old specimens in collections are sometimes of a buff-yellow color, but this is due to discoloration of the original lime-green color: green colors frequently do not keep well in collection specimens. Also characteristic of this species is a series of (usually 8) subquadrate fuscous spots along the M and Rs areas of the tegmen. These spots are sharply defined, and do not extend into the costal and precostal areas, nor into the cubital area. As said with reference to the genus, this species' chromosomic formula (22-22-XY-XX), is different from that of the other 8 species studied (Mesa et al. 1983).

    Distribution.—(Figs 42, 46). Common in southern Brasil (State of Sao Paulo and south), eastern Paraguay, northern and central Argentina south to La Plata, and the whole of Uruguay.

    Habitat.—Bruner (1900: 56) says this species lives in open grassland (other species of the genus Xyleus are usually found among shrubs or in wooded areas). I have collected it often, always in open fields with vegetation prevalently of grasses. In Uruguay it is abundant in the northwest, becoming scarcer to the south and east.

    Identification.— (Fig. 16). Colors and color-pattern as described above make this species easily identifiable. Its phallic complex also has some characters peculiar to this species. While the apical endophallic valves (Fig. 15) are of the same general type as those in X. modestus and X. andinus, its cingulum (Fig. 13) in dorsal view is different from others in the genus in having the median V-shaped posterior incision reduced to a shallow undulation (compare Fig. 13b with most others in the plate). Number of spines on hind tibiae: 12 to 16.

    7. Xyleus modestus (Giglio-Tos 1894) (Figs 14, 15, 17, 44, 46, Table 9)

    Taxonomy.— This is probably the species of Xyleus that has been most frequently misidentified. Giglio-Tos (1894: 16) when describing it, states it is very similar to X. angulatus, and lists a series of differences with this species (which he had never seen). His type of X. modestus was a badly shriveled and discolored specimen that had been in alcohol. The only specimens in Giglio-Tos' collection identified as Tropidonotus angulatus are those mentioned in Giglio-Tos 1894: 16, from Argentina and Paraguay, which are certainly X. modestus. When listing the differences between modestus and angulatus, he was obviously comparing his damaged type of X. modestus with the fresh specimens of the same species collected by Borelli, that he believed to be X. angulatus. These 2 forms are externally very similar, but their phallic complex is clearly different. X. discoideus angulatus is endemic to northeast Brasil, while X. modestus inhabits a large territory including parts of Brasil, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. Both ranges are widely separated by a large area where neither species has been found.

    Bruner (1900: 56) described specimens of this species as Tropidonotus schulzi, a name frequently used for it in subsequent literature. But he also identified as T. angulatus many specimens collected in the same area. Examination of the voucher specimens show that he came to use this name (angulatus) for most specimens of X. modestus collected in the area. In fact, the name X. modestus has been less used for this species than either X. schulzi or X. angulatus.

    Distribution.—(Figs 44, 46). This species is common throughout a large territory in inland South America, that includes at least the states of Rondonia, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul in Brasil, most of Paraguay, the lowlands of Eastern Bolivia and northern Argentina south to Cordoba and Corrientes.

    Identification.—(Fig. 17). X. modestus has colors and color patterning similar to that of X. discoideus. It is sympatric with X. discoideus discoideus in most of its territory, except in the Atlantic coast where X. modestus has not been found. Most specimens of X. d. discoideus have their pronotum as seen from above, with the sides of the metazona rather rounded, while in X. modestus (Fig. 14b) they are angulate, as in X. d. angulatus, a species with which X. d. discoideus appears not to be sympatric in any part of its territory. Dissection of the phallic complex will clear any doubts, the apical endophallic valves in the 2 species in question being completely different (compare Fig. 15b and Fig. 6b). Number of spines on hind tibiae: 10 to 11.

    8. Xyleus andinus n. sp. (Figs 13, 14, 15, 18, 43, 46, Table 10)

    Taxonomy.— This is another species with colors and color-pattern not distinguishable from those of X. discoideus. All specimens examined have a pronotal crest that is high and crenulated in its metazonal part, but this is not uncommon in X. discoideus.

    Distribution.— (Figs 43, 46). Collection localities of the specimens examined all lie within the eastern slope of the Andes, from parallel 6° in Perú (east of the town of Tarapoto) to parallel 18° in Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra).

    Identification.—(Fig. 18). Individuals of this species are very similar in shape, colors and color-pattern to specimens of X. d. angulatus. However, they inhabit a territory which is entirely separated from that of X. d. angulatus. Together with the locality of collection, examination of their phallic complex may be necessary for an accurate identification: shape of the cingulum (Fig. 13) and of the apical endophallic valves (Fig. 15) being the most important characters. There are 10 to 11 spines on the hind tibiae.

    9. Xyleus goias n. sp. (Figs 13, 14, 15, 19, 45, Table 11)

    Taxonomy.— In its general aspect, colors and color-pattern, this species contrasts with species of the Discoideus group. In this sense it is similar to X. lineatus and X. pirapora which, by their phallic complex, each belong in quite different species-groups.

    Distribution.—(Fig. 45). Known specimens are from south-central Brasil, in the states of Goias and Mato Grosso, except for one labeled Rio Anicohe, Amapá State. This locality seems incongruous even for the distribution of the whole genus, being in an area where no species of Xyleus have been found. It might be due to mislabeling of the specimen. I have found no river Anicohe either in the Carta do Brasil ao Milhonesimo (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, 1960) or in the corresponding gazeteer (Vanzolini & Papavero 1968). It may be a small river, not figured in the maps, or a mistake in the label.

    Identification.— (Fig. 19). Differing from the species referred to above, which (with the exception of X laevipes) are predominantly of the colors brown, fuscous and umber, X. goias is, in its colors and color-pattern, similar to X. lineatus and X. pirapora treated below. Individuals of the present species may have a green coloration in the costal or anal areas of the tegmina, sometimes in both. Also, and this is a character shared with X. lineatus and X. pirapora, it has a light-colored (yellowish or dirty white) longitudinal band in the costal area, just below and along the subcostal vein. This light-colored band occupies in some individuals almost the whole of the costal area, in others it may be limited to part of the costal area just against the costal vein. This band is neatly marked towards the base of the tegmen and usually in the basal half, getting fainter or sometimes disappearing altogether towards the apical part of the tegmen. Individuals of this species also have a series of subquadrate dark markings or spots along the medial and Rs areas, similar to those described for X. laevipes. These spots may be clearly visible in some individuals, but in others the whole of the said areas is very dark-colored and the spots on them barely visible or, in some cases, not at all. As in X. laevipes, these dark spots are limited to the RM and Rs areas, and do not go into the C and Sc areas. Cingulum (Fig. 13) and apical endophallic valves (Fig.15) are helpful for identification. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 10 to 11.

    10. Xyleus regularis (Bruner 1905). (Figs 13, 14, 15, 20, 45, Table 12)

    Taxonomy.— Individuals of this species are in general aspect and coloration almost identical with those of X. guarani. The phallic complex in the present species is very different from that of X. guarani, and seems to reveal a closer relationship with modestus, andinus, laevipes and goias than with X. guarani. Within the Laevipes Species Group however, this species' phallic complex is clearly the most divergent from that of the other 4 species in the group.

    Distribution.— (Fig. 45). The species is scarce. The limited series at hand indicates it is mostly sympatric with its sibling X. guarani, living in central western Brasil and eastern Paraguay.

    Identification.— (Figs 14, 20). By their general aspect and coloration, individuals of this species are hardly distingushable from those of X. guarani. Males can be easily identified by examination of their phallic complex, cingulum (Fig. 13) and apical endophallic valves (Fig. 15), these being characteristic. I have not found a way to identify females with any certainty, and the sympatry of these 2 species makes it impossible to identify them by their association with the males. As in X. laevipes and X. guarani, one of the most prominent color-pattern features is a row of subquadrate dark markings (generally fuscous) on the M-Rs areas of its tegmina. These markings, usually 5 to 6 in males and 8 to 9 in females, are well-defined on the M area, becoming fainter on the Rs area, and gradually disappearing towards the tip of the tegmen. The general color of specimens is tawny to cinnamon, frequently being light shades of these colors. On these background colors, there are usually many small irregular dark markings (fuscous or umber). One female specimen has the anal (dorsal) area of its tegmina of a light olive-gray color; the lateral parts of its pronotal disk are also of this color, while the median part is fuscous. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 9 to 10.

    Attenuatus Species Group

    Includes 5 species: X. attenuatus, X. araguaia, X. gracilis, X. pirapora and X. laufferi. The first two are very closely related: they might be considered as subspecies, but differences in phallic complex, particularly in the cingulum (Fig. 27) and the apical endophallic valves (Fig. 22) seem to justify specific status. X. gracilis is, in its external characters, close to the above two, but its phallic complex is clearly different. X. pirapora is the most divergent, and its inclusion in this group may be based only on some similarities unrelated to phylogeny. X. laufferi, known by its unique female type, might be identical with X. attenuatus, X. gracilis or X. araguaia, but in the absence of a male, its true status cannot be ascertained at present.

    Species of this group share some external characters. The pronotal crest is low, (particularly in the metazona) and smooth, generally devoid of any denticulations or crenulations, except in X. araguaia and in some specimens of X. attenuatus: here the metazonal part of the crest may have some low and inconspicuous crenulations. Transverse sulci of the pronotum are shallow, sometimes not very marked; hence the pronotal lobes are entirely contiguous. Hind femora are narrow in proportion to their length: their median dorsal and median ventral carinae have only very small and low denticulations; denticulations may be absent in some male specimens of X. gracilis.

    Chromatic characters: specimens are predominantly brown (shades of brown, fuscous or umber) in all species. In some specimens in all species the costal area of tegmina may be green, but in most it is of as many different shades and hues of brown as the rest of the tegmen. The area of the tegmen just above R and M may present a series of dark (fuscous) spots (as shown in the habitus figures of X. attenuatus and X. araguaia) that never enter the costal area.

    11. Xyleus attenuatus (Rehn 1909) (Figs 21, 22, 23, 27, 45, Table 13)

    Taxonomy.— Most external characters are mentioned above in relation to the species-group. In all specimens of both sexes the lateral lobes of the pronotum show a series of roughly parallel longitudinal dark stripes, but this character is shared with X. gracilis, and can be seen also in the only female specimen of X. araguaia examined. With reference to the nomenclature of this species, see observations under X. laufferi.

    Distribution.—(Fig. 45). This is an inland species, known from northern Bolivia and central-western Brasil (Rondonia, Mato Grosso, Goias, Minas Gerais), reaching near the Atlantic coast in Sergipe. The species is not abundant, and its distribution is probably more extensive than is here registered, as suggested by the Sergipe specimens.

    Identification.— (Figs 21, 23). The phallic complex offers the best specific features, especially in the apical endophallic valves (Fig. 22) and the shape of the cingulum (Fig. 27). Number of spines on hind tibiae: 12 to 14.

    12. Xyleus araguaia n. sp. (Figs 21, 22, 24, 27, 44, Table 14)

    Taxonomy.— In its external features it is almost identical with X. attenuatus. The 3 known specimens are paler in color than most specimens of X. attenuatus.

    Distribution.— (Fig. 44). Apparently an uncommon species, it is known only by the typeseries from the southeast of the State of Mato Grosso. This locality is 350 km southeast of Chapada dos Guimaraes and only 75 km northwest of Mineiros (Goias), but the species has not been collected in either of these places.

    Identification.—(Figs 21, 24). Features of its phallic complex allow its easy identification (Fig. 22, apical endophallic valves; Fig. 27, cingulum). Number of spines on hind tibiae: 14.

    13. Xyleus gracilis (Bruner 1905) (Figs 21, 22, 25, 27, 37, 46, Table 15)

    Taxonomy.— Characters of this species have been given with respect to the species-group. Most specimens show dark longitudinal lines on the lateral lobes of the pronotum.

    Distribution.—(Figs 37, 46). Very imperfectly known due to its being a rather uncommon species, X. gracilis occurs in central southern Brasil, from the states of Goias and Minas Gerais south to Rio Grande do Sul and the Argentinian province of Misiones.

    Identification.— (Figs 21, 25). Its elongated form, low pronotal crest and narrow hind femora, are characters of this species, though some of them are shared with others in the group. Many specimens have the precostal and costal areas of the tegmina, and some also the anal areas, lime green. Others have these areas buff-colored. Below the Sc vein in the costal area, there is usually a narrow white longitudinal band that in most specimens is very conspicuous. Along the M and Rs areas most specimens have a fuscous band that in some individuals is continuous; in others it is fractioned into a series of separate fuscous spots. M and R veins usually show some whitish parts, separated by fuscous tracts. The pronotal disc in some specimens is of a uniform buff or cinnamon color; in other specimens a narrow medial area that includes the crest is fuscous, the lateral parts buff or sometimes of a dirty lime green. One female specimen in the series examined is quite melanic, covered with irregular fuscous markings on a buff background. Some specimens have a narrow line at the top of the pronotal crest and on the lateral carinae of the pronotum, of a much lighter shade than the rest of the pronotum. Some have also the first anal vein of a very light color, contrasting with that of the rest of the tegmen. In the hind wings, the base of the anal area is colored in shades of rose to ruby. The phallic complex offers as usual the best characters for the identification of this species: the shapes of the cingulum (Fig. 27) and of the apical endophallic valves (Fig. 22) are characteristic. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 15 to 18.

    14. Xyleus pirapora n. sp. (Figs 21, 22, 26, 27, 45, Table 16)

    Taxonomy.— As said with reference to the Attenuatus Species Group, X. pirapora seems the most divergent from the rest of the species in the group, and some similarities with the other species may not be related to a phyletic relationship.

    Distribution.— (Fig. 45). The only known specimens are from the country surrounding the town of Pirapora, on the San Francisco River, in central Minas Gerais, Brasil.

    Identification.—(Figs 21, 26). This is species with a rather low but arched pronotal crest. The whole insect is rather uniformly colored in shades of chestnut, with a conspicuous longitudinal band of a very light color (very light buff to dirty white) in the costal area of the tegmina, next to and along the Sc vein. Individuals of this species do not have dark longitudinal bands on the lateral lobes of the pronotum. Some have the central area of the pronotal disk colored in a much darker shade than the lateral areas, but in others the whole disk is uniformly colored. Best characters for identification are in the phallic complex, where cingulum (Fig. 27) and apical endophallic valves (Fig. 22) are characteristic. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 9 to 10.

    15. Xyleus laufferi (Bolivar 1891) n. comb. (Fig. 43, Table 17)

    Taxonomy: identification.— The species is known only from the female holotype, which is practically identical to females of X. attenuatus, X. gracilis and X. araguaia. Only by finding a male in the general area where the female type was collected could it be ascertained if this taxon is conspecific with any of these species. In this case, such a species will fall as a synonym of X. laufferi, this name having priority over the other 3. But the species in this group being so much alike (except in their phallic complex), it might well be that the X. laufferi male will prove to be different from any of the 3 species named above. Without the knowledge of the phallic complex of this species, even its placement in the present Species Group, based only in its external aspect, must be considered as tentative.

    As to the possibility of one or the other species being identical with laufferi, geographical reasons would point to X. attenuatus as the most probable, its range lying more to the west, hence closer to Cumbase. On morphological grounds however, a very slight evidence points the other way: X. attenuatus has a lower number of external spines on its hind tibiae (12 to 14) while X. gracilis has 15 to 18 spines, and the type of X. laufferi has 19.

    Distribution.— The only known specimen is labelled as from “Cumbase”, a locality on the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes.

    Insignis Species Group

    Includes X. insignis, X. aimara, X. lineatus and X. guarani. These 4 species have in common a high pronotal crest, particularly in the metazona, and the sides of pronotum in dorsal view are rather angulate (Fig. 28). Other details of their external aspect, including color pattern, are different in each species as stated below, with reference to each species. The group is admittedly rather heterogeneous, and has been made mainly on the basis of the shape of the apical endophallic valves (Fig. 29), which are narrow, elongated and upwardly directed in their apical parts. The same general cingulum shape is shared by X. insignis and X. aimara, but differs from that of X. lineatus and X. guarani, which also differ in cingulum shape from each other (Fig 27).

    16. Xyleus insignis (Giglio-Tos 1894) (Figs 27, 28, 29, 30, 44, 46, Table 18)

    Taxonomy.— This is a most variable species in colors and color pattern. Females vary from uniformly lime green to the most diverse patterns of brown, fuscous and umber. These colors may be uniform or with numerous dark spots or markings on a lighter background color. Males are rarely green: most of the ones examined were colored in shades of brown, russet or fuscous.

    Distribution.—(Figs 44, 46). A common and abundant species distributed in central western Brasil (Mato Grosso), eastern Bolivia, northern and central Argentina to Entre Rios.

    Identification.—(Figs 28, 30). The safest way to identify this species is by examination of the phallic complex (Figs 27, 29). However, some general indications may help in identifiying females or undissected males. Uniformly lime-green males or females are of this species. This uniformly green coloration is much more common in females than in males. Many female collection specimens are uniformly light buff, but I do not know whether these represent green females discolored after death, or originally of this color. An interesting character found in individuals of this species is that the R-vein in the tegmina is frequently either entirely or in parts of a very light color (sometimes almost white); this is very noticeable on a generally much darker background, but is also seen in other species. What allows certain identification in males is their phallic complex: this cannot be mistaken for that of any other species in the genus. Both the cingulum and the apical endophallic valves (Figs 27, 29) are of the most characteristic form, different from those of any of the species mentioned to this point. The cingulum and the apical endophallic valves are somewhat similar to those found in X. aimara. The apical endophallic valves, with their narrow and elongated form, have a certain similarity too with those in X. lineatus and X. guarani; but the cingulum in the latter species is quite different from the one in X. insignis and X. aimara, and is rather of the form found in the species of the Discoideus and Laevipes Species Groups. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 10 to 11.

    Note on the coloration of specimens: among 70 females from Mascasin, Prov. La Rioja, Argentina, 43 are green and 27 brown; for males from the same locality, 3 green, 19 brown.

    17. Xyleus aimara n. sp. (Figs 27, 28, 29, 31, 44, Table 19)

    Taxonomy.—The single male type of X. aimara seems hardly separable from males of species in the groups Insignis or Laevipes. Also, by examination of a single specimen, it would be difficult to define differences or similarities with other species that look like it in general aspect and coloration. Its phallic complex, on the other hand, is quite characteristic, as shown by Figs 27 (cingulum) and 29 (apical endophallic valves). As said above, the phallic complex in X. aimara shows a close relationship with X. insignis.

    Distribution.— (Fig. 44). This species is not known except for the type-locality, a seemingly inhospitable tract of the Andean altiplano in the vicinity of the city of Sucre.

    Identification.— (Figs 28, 31). The only safe way to identify this species in the light of what is known of it, seems by examination of its phallic complex (Figs 27, 29). Ten spines occur on each hind tibia.

    18. Xyleus lineatus (Bruner 1906) n. comb. (Figs 27, 28, 29, 32, 45, Table 20)

    Taxonomy.—This species is, in its external aspect, very similar to X. pirapora and X. goias. Judging from characters of their phallic complex however, these 3 species belong in different species-groups: while X. lineatus belongs in the Insignis Group, X. pirapora is a member of the Attenuatus Group, and X. goias of the Laevipes Group.

    Distribution.—(Fig. 45). This is a rare species. The limited series now at hand indicates that it inhabits central western Brasil (Mato Grosso, Goias) south to Sao Paulo, and also eastern Paraguay and northwestern Argentina. The limited series now at hand has been found within this large territory.

    Identification.— (Figs 28, 32). Specimens of this species have a conspicuous light-colored band occupying the whole of the costal area (between C and Sc) of the tegmina, but this character is shared with specimens of X. goias and X. pirapora. This light-colored line is usually of a very light cream color, sometimes almost white, the basis of its specific name of lineatus. Above this line, veins Sc and R are a very dark maroon or chestnut color, though the R vein has frequently some small whitish sections. The rest of the tegmen, as with usually the rest of the insect, is generally in shades of chestnut or hazel, but in some individuals there is a series of indistinct spots, slightly darker than the background along the R and Rs areas. In 3 of the specimens examined, the precostal and anal areas of the tegmen are of a dirty lime-green color. Accurate identification of the species can be done only by examination of its phallic complex, of which both the cingulum (Fig. 27) and the apical endophalic valves (Fig. 29) are quite characteristic. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 10 to 11.

    19. Xyleus guarani (Rehn 1907) n. comb. (Figs 27, 28, 29, 33, 45, Table 21)

    Taxonomy.— While X. guarani and X. regularis are almost identical in their external aspect and color pattern, their phallic complexes are quite different, to the point that these species are considered here as members of two different Species Groups: X. guarani being maybe the most divergent species of the Insignis Group, but related to it by narrow and elongated apical endophallic valves; X. regularis being the most divergent species of the Laevipes Group. Examination of both cingulum and apical endophallic valves does not reveal any affinity between these 2 species.

    Distribution.— (Fig. 45). This is a rare species, known from western central Brasil (Goias, Mato Grosso), São Paulo and eastern Paraguay, sympatric with its sibling X. regularis.

    Identification.—(Figs 28, 33). As said with respect to X. regularis, the external aspect of X. guarani (Fig. 33) does not allow the separation of these 2 species. Background is buff to clay color, on which are many irregular dark (fuscous or umber) markings. A few specimens have the anal (dorsal) area of the tegmina greenish (shades of lime green). Conspicuous in all specimens is a series of dark (umber) subquadrate markings on the M and Rs areas; these markings neatly defined on the M area, become fainter on the Rs area and gradually vanish towards the tip of the tegmen; their numbers are somewhat variable, but are usually 4 to 6 in males, 7 to 8 in females. Cingulum (Fig. 27) and apical endophallic valves (Fig. 29) are characteristic. Number of spines on hind tibiae: 9 to 10.

    Incertae sedis

    20. Xyleus camposi (Bolívar 1909) n. comb. (Figs 35, 40, Table 22)

    Taxonomy.— I see no reason to consider this species as belonging to a genus different from Xyleus. It probably represents the only short-winged species of the genus. As to its affinities, both its general aspect and geographic origin suggest its belonging in the Discoideus Species Group.

    Distribution.— The species is known from a few female specimens collected in Posorja, Ecuador, Prov. Guayas, at the northern edge of the Gulf of Guayaquil.

    Identification.— A very distinctive species within the genus due to its being brevialate. Its general shape can be seen in Fig. 35. In dorsal view, the prothoracic metazona has its sides rounded as in rosulentus and mexicanus. The male of this species is unknown.

    21. Xyleus tuberculatus (Palissot de Beauvois 1817) n. comb. Nomen dubium, nomen oblitum

    The figure in Palissot de Beauvois' paper apparently represents a species of Xyleus, but the observable details do not allow assignation to a definite species. Its strongly maculated tegmina suggest a species of the Discoideus Species Group.

    Acknowledgments

    Much of the preliminary work related to this paper was done in museums where the types of the species studied are kept. But most of it was conducted in the Universidad de la República, Uruguay, under the auspices of the Programa para el Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (PEDECIBA). I gratefully acknowledge the help of the curators and collection managers of the museums listed under Repositories, for their assistance during my visits and the loan of specimens and types. Among them particularly, C. Amedegnato, D. Azuma, A. Bachmann, C.A. Campos-Seabra, F. Cerdá, M.M. Cigliano, A. Mesa, M.A. Monné, E. Morales-Agacino, D.A. Nickle, P.I. Persson, B.C. Ratcliffe, H.R. Roberts, R.A. Ronderos, M.J. Souza-Lopes and S. Turk are thanked for their help. I am very grateful to T.J. Cohn and D. Otte for their help and encouragement throughout my work. Dr. Cohn made a careful revision of my manuscript, making many suggestions for its improvement And, as always, appreciation to my wife Albina and other members of my family for their sustained help on the domestic front.

    References

    1.

    C. Amedegnato 1993. African-American relationships in the acridians (Insecta, Orthoptera). pp. 59–75. In George W., Lavocat R. (Eds) The Africa-South America Connection. Clarendon Press, Oxford, xvii+. 66. pp. Google Scholar

    2.

    O. Astacio-Cabrera 1975. Notas sobre algunos acridios de Nicaragua. Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal, Nicaragua. 41. pp. (mimeogr.). Google Scholar

    3.

    M. Barrera and S. Z. Turk . 1977. Acridios del NOA [Nor-Oeste Argentino], II. Contribución al conocimiento de huevos, desoves y hábitos de postura de algunas especies de tucuras (Orthoptera, Acrididae), de la Provincia de Tucumán. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 32:167–188. Google Scholar

    4.

    O. Baucke 1954. Catalogo dos insetos encontrados no Rio Grande do Sul (Orthoptera, Acridoidea). Revista Agronomica, Porto Alegre 17:2–11. pl. 1–7. Google Scholar

    5.

    E. Blanchard 1840. Deuxiéme Ordre, Orthoptères. pp. 1–64. In Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Tome 3, Paris. 673. pp., 72 pl. Google Scholar

    6.

    E. Blanchard 1851. Orden IV, Ortópteros. pp. 5–85. In Gay C., Historia Física y Política de Chile. Paris. Zoología, Tomo. 6:572. pp. Google Scholar

    7.

    E. E. Blanchard y Colaboradores. 1945. Insectos y nemátodos relacionados con el cultivo del tabaco. Ministerio de Agricultura, Instituto de Sanidad Vegetal, Argentina, Publicación Miscelánea N° 1:623. pp. Google Scholar

    8.

    F. Boie 1826. Generalübersicht der Familien und Gattungen der Ophidien. Isis 19:982. Google Scholar

    9.

    F. Boie 1827. Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien. Isis 20:508–566. Google Scholar

    10.

    I. Bolivar 1884. Insectos Neurópteros y Ortópteros. pp. 30–51. lam.1–3. In Artrópodos del Viaje al Pacífico, verificado de de 1862 a 1865, por una comisión de Naturalistas enviada por el Gobierno Español. Madrid. 115. pp. Google Scholar

    11.

    I. Bolivar 1890–91. Diagnosis de ortópteros nuevos. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 19:161–432. lam. 1. Google Scholar

    12.

    I. Bolivar 1902. Les orthoptères de St. Joseph's College a Trichinopoly (Sud de l'Inde). Annales Société Entomologique de France 70:580–635. pl. 9. Google Scholar

    13.

    I. Bolivar 1906. Rectificaciones y observaciones ortopterológicas. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 6:387–396. Google Scholar

    14.

    I. Bolivar 1909. Acrididos nuevos americanos. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 13:6337–354. Google Scholar

    15.

    R. W. Brown 1956. Composition of Scientific Words. Smithsonian, Washington DC. 882. pp. Google Scholar

    16.

    A. Brull&eacute 1835. Orthoptères et Hemiptères. In Audouin V., Brullé A., Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Paris, Tome 9. 415. pp., 20 pl. Google Scholar

    17.

    L. Bruner 1895. Nicaraguan Orthoptera. Laboratory of Natural History, State University of Iowa, Bulletin N° 3:58–69. pl. 2, 3. Google Scholar

    18.

    L. Bruner 1900. The second report of the Merchant's Locust Investigation Commission of Buenos Aires. Lincoln, Nebraska. 80. pp. Google Scholar

    19.

    L. Bruner 1905. Two new South American grasshoppers. Entomological News 16:214–215. Google Scholar

    20.

    L. Bruner 1906. Synoptic list of Paraguayan Acrididae or Locusts, with descriptions of new forms. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 30:613–694. pl. 36–38. Google Scholar

    21.

    L. Bruner 1900–1909. Acrididae. In. Biologia Centrali Americana 2:1–342. pl.1–4. Google Scholar

    22.

    L. Bruner 1910. Report on an interesting collection of locusts from Peru. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae 39:464–488. Google Scholar

    23.

    L. Bruner 1911. I. South American Acridoidea. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 8:5–147. Google Scholar

    24.

    L. Bruner 1913a. Results of Yale Peruvian Expedition of 1911. Orthoptera (Acrididae, Short-horned locusts). Proceedings United States National Museum 44:177–187. Google Scholar

    25.

    L. Bruner 1913b. South American Locusts (Acridoidea). II. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 8:423–506. Google Scholar

    26.

    K. Brunner Von Wattenwyl 1893. Révision du systéme des Orthoptères et description des espèces rapportés par M. Leonardo Fea de Birmanie. Anali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Ser. 2 13:5–230. lam. 1–6. Google Scholar

    27.

    K. Brunner Von Wattenwyl 1900. Von ihrer Königl. Hoheit der Prinzessin Therese von Bayern aufeiner Reise im Südamerika gesammelte Insekten. II. Orthopteren. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 45:253–269. pl. 3. Google Scholar

    28.

    E. H. Bucher 1974. Observaciones ecológicas sobre los artrópodos del bosque chaqueño de Tucumán. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Córdoba (Argentina), N.S., Biología 1:35–122. Google Scholar

    29.

    H. Burmeister 1838. Handbuch der Entomologie. Zweiter Band. Berlin. 1050. pp. Google Scholar

    30.

    A. L. Cabrera and A. Willink . 1973. Biogeografía de América Latina. Monografías de O.E.A. (Washington, USA), N° 13:120. pp. Google Scholar

    31.

    F. Campos 1921. Especies nuevas de insectos ecuatorianos. Revista del Colegio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte, Guayaquil 3:84–92. Google Scholar

    32.

    F. Campos 1923. Estudios sobre la fauna entomológica del Ecuador. IX, Ortópteros. Revista del Colegio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte, Guayaquil 5:3–43. Google Scholar

    33.

    A. N. Caudell 1932. Insects of the order Orthoptera of the Pinchot Expedition of 1929. Proceedings United States National Museum 80:1–7. Google Scholar

    34.

    T. Charpentier 1842 (1841–1845). Orthoptera Descripta et Depicta. Lipsiae, Text [unnumbered pages] + 60 pl. Google Scholar

    35.

    M. M. Cigliano, M. L. de Wysiecki, and C. E. Lange . 2000. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) species diversity in the Pampas, Argentina. Diversity and Distributions 6:81–91. Google Scholar

    36.

    C.O.P.R 1982. The Locust and Grasshopper Agricultural Manual. Centre for Overseas Pest Research, London, vii +. 690. pp. Google Scholar

    37.

    M. K. M. Costa and L. J. Jantsch . 1999. Acridóideos (Orthoptera, Caelifera, Acridoidea) ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul. Biociências (Porto Alegre) 7:135–155. Google Scholar

    38.

    M. Descamps 1975. Etude du peuplement acridien de l'état de Veracruz (Mexique). Folia Entomologica Mexicana, Nos 31–32:3–97. Google Scholar

    39.

    M. Descamps 1976. Le peuplement acridien d'un pèrimétre d'Amazonie colombienne. Annales Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 12:291–318. Google Scholar

    40.

    M. Descamps and C. Amedegnato . 1970. Acridomorpha (Orthoptera) récoltés en Guyane Française par la mission du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, (N.S.) 6:4861–897. Google Scholar

    41.

    M. L. de Wysiecki, N. Sanchez, and S. E. Ricci . 2000. Grassland and shrubland grasshopper community composition in northern La Pampa province, Argentina. Journal of Orthoptera Research 9:211–221. Google Scholar

    42.

    V. M. Dirsh 1956. The phallic complex in Acridoidea (Orthoptera) in relation to taxonomy. Transactions Royal Entomological Society of London 108:223–356. 66 pl. Google Scholar

    43.

    V. M. Dirsh 1961. A preliminary revision of the families and subfamilies of Acridoidea (Orthoptera, Insecta). Bulletin of the British Museum (N.H.) Entomology 10:351–419. Google Scholar

    44.

    W. F. Erichson 1848. Insekten. pp. 553–617. In Schomburgk R., (Ed.) Versuch einer Fauna und Flora von Britisch-Guiana. Reisen in Britisch Guiana in der Jahren 1840–1841, etc. Vol. 3, Leipzig. 1260. pp. Google Scholar

    45.

    S. A. Fragoso 1980. Diaphanous preparations from dark, opaque coleopterans. The Coleopterists' Bulletin 34:143–144. Google Scholar

    46.

    S. K. Gangwere and R. A. Ronderos . 1975. A synopsis of food selection in Argentine Acridoidea. Acrida 4:173–194. Google Scholar

    47.

    E. Giglio-Tos 1894. Viaggio dell dott. Alfredo Borelli nella Repubblica Argentina e nel Paraguay. VI, Ortotteri. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Universita di Torino 9. 1–46. 1 pl. Google Scholar

    48.

    E. Giglio-Tos 1895. Ortotteri del Paraguay, racolti dal Dr. J. Bohls. Zoologisches Jahrbüchern, Jena 8:804–818. Google Scholar

    49.

    E. Giglio-Tos 1897. Viaggio del Dott. A. Borelli nel Chaco Boliviano e nella Republica Argentina. X, Ortotteri. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Universita di Torino 12:1–47. Google Scholar

    50.

    E. Giglio-Tos 1898. Viaggio del Dr. Enrico Festa nella Republica dell'Ecuadore regioni vicine. VI, Ortotteri. Bolletino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Universitá di Torino 13:1–108. Google Scholar

    51.

    E. Giglio-Tos 1900. Viaggio del Dr. A. Borelli nel Matto Grosso e nel Paraguay. IV, Ortotteri. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R.Universitá di Torino 15:1–8. Google Scholar

    52.

    J. Gistel 1848. Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs für Höhere Schulen. Stuttgart, Vol. 9, xvi+216 pp. 32. pl. Google Scholar

    53.

    J. A. Grossbeck 1912. Types of insects, except Lepidoptera and Formicidae, in the American Museum of Natural History additional to those previously listed. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History 31:353–379. Google Scholar

    54.

    P. Guagliumi 1962. Las plagas de la caña de azúcar en Venezuela. Centro de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Maracay, Venezuela, Monografía N° 2, 2 vols. 850. pp. 14 pl. Google Scholar

    55.

    P. Guagliumi 1973. Pragas da Cana de Açucar no Nordeste do Brasil. Coleçao Canavieira, Instituto do Açucar e do Alcool, Brasil, N° 10:622. pp. Google Scholar

    56.

    J. K. Hayward 1960. Insectos tucumanos perjudiciales. Revista Industrial y Agrícola de Tucumán 42:3–144. Google Scholar

    57.

    M. Hebard 1923. Studies in the Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Colombia. Third Paper, Orthopterous family Acrididae. Transactions American Entomological Society 49:165–313. pl. 10–17. Google Scholar

    58.

    M. Hebard 1924a. Studies in the Acrididae of Panama (Orthoptera). Transactions American Entomological Society 50:75–140. pl. 6–8. Google Scholar

    59.

    M. Hebard 1924b. Studies in the Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Ecuador. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 76:109–248. pl 5–10. Google Scholar

    60.

    M. Hebard 1931. Die Ausbeute der deutschen Chaco-Expediton 1925/26. Orthoptera. Konowia. Zeitschrift für systematische Insektenkunde, Wien 10:4257–285. pl. 1. Google Scholar

    61.

    M. Hebard 1932. New species and records of Mexican Orthoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 58:201–371. pl. 17–21. Google Scholar

    62.

    M. Hebard 1933a. Studies in the Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Colombia. Supplement to papers one to five. Transactions American Entomological Society 59:13–67. pl. 2–3. Google Scholar

    63.

    M. Hebard 1933b. Notes on Panamanian Dermaptera and Orthoptera. Transactions American Entomological Society 59:103–114. pl. 6–7. Google Scholar

    64.

    Instituto Brasileiro De Geografia E Estadistica 1960. Carta do Brasil ao Milhonesimo. Rio de Janeiro. 190. pp. Google Scholar

    65.

    Irmão José Gregório 1980. Contribuição Indigena ao Brasil. União Brasileira de Educação e Ensino, Belo Horizonte, 3 vol. 1316. pp. Google Scholar

    66.

    W. F. Kirby 1890. On the employment of the names proposed for genera of Orthoptera previous to 1840. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society 6:556–597. Google Scholar

    67.

    W. F. Kirby 1910. A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. Vol. 3. Orthoptera Saltatoria. Part. 2. (Locustidae vel Acrididae). British Museum, London. 674. pp. Google Scholar

    68.

    Kuhl 1824. Sur les reptiles de Java. Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Geologie 2:79–88. Google Scholar

    69.

    Kuhl & Hasselt 1822. Aus einem Schreiben von Dr. Kuhl und Dr. van Hasselt auf Java. Isis 4:472–478. Google Scholar

    70.

    C. E. Lange and M. L. de Wysiecki . 1996. The fate of Nosema locustae (Microsporida: Nosematidae) in Argentine grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Biological Control 7:24–29. Google Scholar

    71.

    J. Liebermann 1928. Preliminares para el estudio de los acridoideos argentinos. Anales Sociedad Científica Argentina 104:137–158. Google Scholar

    72.

    J. Liebermann 1935. Catálogo sistemático y razonado de acridoideos argentinos. Géneros: Prionolopha, Diedronotus, Elaeochlora y Chromacris (Orthop. Acrididae). Revista Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 7:25–50. pl. 1–3. Google Scholar

    73.

    J. Liebermann 1939. Catálogo sistemático y biogeográfico de acridoideos argentinos. Revista Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 10:125–230. Google Scholar

    74.

    J. Liebermann 1941a. Contribución a la zoogeografía, taxonomía y ecología de los acridoideos de Entre Rios. Publicación del Ministerio de Hacienda, Justicia e Instrucción Pública de Paraná, Entre Rios. 41. pp., 9 pl. Google Scholar

    75.

    J. Liebermann 1941b. Lista de los acridoideos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Anuario Rural, Dirección de Agricultura Ganadería e Industrias, La PLata 9:155–158. Google Scholar

    76.

    J. Liebermann 1942. Contribución al conocimiento de los acridios de San Luis. Boletín Agrícola, Mendoza 1942:1–36. Google Scholar

    77.

    J. Liebermann 1946. Sobre una colección de acridios paraguayos de la Misión Científica Brasileña 1940–1944 (Orth. Acrid). Revista de Entomología, Rio de Janeiro 17:452–456. Google Scholar

    78.

    J. Liebermann 1947. Nuevos materiales acrídicos de la colección del Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, con algunas observaciones acerca de Episcopotettix Rehn 1902. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 7:391–394. Google Scholar

    79.

    J. Liebermann 1948. Los acridios de Santa Fe. Revista Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 14:56–114. Google Scholar

    80.

    J. Liebermann 1949. Sobre una colección de acridios argentinos del Naturhistorischen Museum de Viena (Orth. Acrid). Instituto de Sanidad Vegetal, Buenos Aires, año 5, ser A, N° 46:12. pp. Google Scholar

    81.

    J. Liebermann 1951. Los acridios de Corrientes. IDIA, Buenos Aires. 42–4339–48. Google Scholar

    82.

    J. Liebermann 1954. Los acridoideos de Catamarca y La Rioja. Instituto de Sanidad Vegetal, Buenos Aires, año 10, ser A, N° 58:18. pp. Google Scholar

    83.

    J. Liebermann 1955. Primeira relação sistemática dos acridoideos do Brasil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 53:329–344. Google Scholar

    84.

    J. Liebermann 1958. Los acridios de Formosa (Orth. Caelif. Acridoidea). Instituto de Patología Vegetal, Buenos Aires, Año 1, Publicación Técnica N° 5:24. pp., 1 map. Google Scholar

    85.

    J. Liebermann 1963. Sinopsis bibliográfica de los acridoideos del Perú. Revista Peruana de Entomología Agrícola 6:61–66. Google Scholar

    86.

    J. Liebermann 1967. Revisión de algunos materiales típicos de tucuras argentinas publicadas por Lawrence Bruner en su trabajo de 1900 (Orth. Acrididae). Revista Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 29:96–100. Google Scholar

    87.

    J. Liebermann 1972. The current state of the locust and grasshopper problem in Argentina. pp. 191–198. In: Proceedings International Study Conference on Current and Future Problems of Acridiology, London 1970. Google Scholar

    88.

    J. Liebermann and A. A. Piran . 1941. Primera lista de acridios uruguayos. Dirección General y de Contralor de la Lucha Contra la Langosta, Montevideo. 12. pp. Google Scholar

    89.

    J. Liebermann and A. Ruffinelli . 1946. Catálogo de acridoideos uruguayos. Revista de la Asociación de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Montevideo 74:9–21. Google Scholar

    90.

    J. Liebermann and R. Schiuma . 1946. Las tucuras mas perjudiciales de nuestra agricultura y ganadería. Publicaciones del Instituto de Sanidad Vegetal, Buenos Aires, Ser. B, N° 7:63. pp. Google Scholar

    91.

    C. Linnaeus 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum characteribus differentis, synonimis, locis. Editio decima reformata. Holmiae, Tomus I. 824. pp. Google Scholar

    92.

    J. B. Mason 1969. The tympanal organ of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). EOS, Madrid 44:267–355. Google Scholar

    93.

    A. Mesa 1956. Los cromosomas de algunos acridoideos uruguayos (Orthoptera, Caelifera, Acridoidea). Agros, Revista de la Asociación de Estudiantes de Agronomía, Montevideo 141:32–45. Google Scholar

    94.

    A. Mesa, A. Ferreira, and C. S. Carbonell . 1983. Cariología de los acridoideos neotropicales: estado actual de su conocimiento y nuevas contribuciones. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, (N.S.) 18:507–526. Google Scholar

    95.

    H. H. Muma 1952. Insect types in the collections of the University of Nebraska State Museum. Bulletin University of Nebraska State Museum 3:1–35. Google Scholar

    96.

    D. Otte 1978. The primary types of Orthoptera (Saltatoria, Mantodea, Phasmatodea and Blattodea) at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 130:26–87. Google Scholar

    97.

    A. M. F. J. Palissot De Beauvois 1817. Insectes recueillis en Afrique et en Amerique, dans les Royaumes d'Oware et de Benin, a Saint-Domingue et dans les Etats-Unis, pendant les années 1786 - 1797. Paris 1805–1821. 276. pp. 26. pl. [Orthoptera in 1817]. Google Scholar

    98.

    P. Passerin D'Entreves 1981. Cataloghi. IV - Collezioni ortotterologiche del Museo di Zoologia dell'Universitá di Torino. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino. 127. pp. Google Scholar

    99.

    A. Petrunkewitsch and G. Guaita . 1901. Ueber den geschlechtlichen Dimorphismus bei den Tonapparaten der Orthopteren. Zoologische Jahrbücher 14:291–310. pl 15–18. Google Scholar

    100.

    A. Pictet and H. Saussure . 1887. Catalogue d'Acridiens. I. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse 7:331–376. Google Scholar

    101.

    D. R. Ragge 1955. The Wing-venation of Orthoptera Saltatoria with Notes on Dictyopteran Wing-venation. British Museum (Natural History), vi +. 159. pp. Google Scholar

    102.

    J. Ramos, J. M. Pino, F. Rincon, M. Alvarado, E. Escamilla, and J. Labougle . 1982. Insectos comestibles del estado de Oaxaca. Folia Entomologica Mexicana 54:92–93. Google Scholar

    103.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1901. Some necessary changes and corrections in names of Orthoptera. Canadian Entomologist 33:271–272. Google Scholar

    104.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1905. Records of some Paraguayan Orthoptera, with the description of a new genus and species. Entomological News 16:37–42. Google Scholar

    105.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1907. Non-saltatorial and acridoid Orthoptera from Sapucay, Paraguay. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 59:151–192. Google Scholar

    106.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1908. Acrididae (Orthoptera) from Sao Paulo, Brazil, with descriptions of one new genus and three new species. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 60:12–23. Google Scholar

    107.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1909. On Brazilian grasshopppers of the subfamilies Pyrgomorphinae and Locustinae (Acridinae of authors). Proceedings United States National Museum 36:109–163. Google Scholar

    108.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1911. Notes on Paraguayan Orthoptera, with descriptions of a new genus and four new species. Entomological News 22:247–258. Google Scholar

    109.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1913a. Descriptions and records of South American Orthoptera, with the description of a new subspecies from Clarion Island. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 63:82–113. Google Scholar

    110.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1913b. A contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 63:273–379. Google Scholar

    111.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 67:270–292. Google Scholar

    112.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1916. The Stanford Expedition to Brazill, 1911. Dermaptera and Orthoptera I. Transactions American Entomological Society 42:215–308. pl. 14, 15. Google Scholar

    113.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1917. On Orthoptera from the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Transactions American Entomological Society 43:335–363. pl. 27. Google Scholar

    114.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1918a. On Dermaptera and Orthoptera from Southeastern Brazil. Transactions American Entomological Society 44:181–222. Google Scholar

    115.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1918b. Descriptions of one new genus and fifteen new species of Tropical American Orthoptera. Transactions American Entomological Society 44:321–372. pl. 18–20. Google Scholar

    116.

    J. A. G. Rehn 1920. Records and descriptions of Brazilian Orthoptera. Proceedings academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 72:214–293. pl. 10–11. Google Scholar

    117.

    J. A. G. Rehn and H. J. Grant . 1959. An analysis of the tribes of the Romaleinae with special reference to their internal genitalia (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Transactions American Entomological Society 85:233–271. Google Scholar

    118.

    H. R. Roberts 1937. Studies on the family Acrididae (Orthoptera) of Venezuela. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 89:343–368. pl. 13–14. Google Scholar

    119.

    H. R. Roberts 1941. A comparative study of the subfamilies of the Acrididae (Orthoptera) primarily on the basis of their phallic structures. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 93:201–246. Google Scholar

    120.

    R. A. Ronderos 1959. Identificación de las especies de tucuras mas comunes en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Agro, Buenos Aires 1:1–31. 4 pl. Google Scholar

    121.

    J. A. Rosas-Costa 1963. A propósito del género Paralcamenes Bolivar 1909 (Orth., Acridoidea). EOS, Madrid 39:307–311. Google Scholar

    122.

    C. H. F. Rowell 1987. The biogeography of Costa Rican acridid grasshoppers in relation to their putative phylogenetic origins and ecology. Chapter 43, pp. 470–482. In Baccetti B. (Ed.) Evolutionary Biology of Orthopteroid Insects. Chichester, England. Google Scholar

    123.

    C. H. F. Rowell 1998. The grasshoppers of Costa Rica: a survey of the parameters influencing their conservation and survival. Journal of Insect Conservation 2:225–234. Google Scholar

    124.

    C. H. F. Rowell and P. K. Flook . 1998. Phylogeny of the Caelifera and Orthoptera as derived from ribosomal gene sequences. Journal of Orthoptera Research 7:147–156. Google Scholar

    125.

    F. A. Saez 1956. Estudios citogenéticos en ortópteros sudamericanos. Biología, Chile 22:21–26. Google Scholar

    126.

    S. H. Scudder 1901. Index to North American Orthoptera. Occasional Papers Boston Society of Natural History, N° 6:vi +. 436. pp. Google Scholar

    127.

    J. G. A. Serville 1831. Revue methodique des insectes de l'Ordre des Orthoptères. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris 22:28–65.134–167.262–292. Google Scholar

    128.

    J. G. A. Serville 1839. Histoire naturelle des insectes Orthoptères. Collection des suites a Buffon, Paris, xvii +. 776. pp., Atlas. 4. pp., + 14 pl. Google Scholar

    129.

    A. Silveira-Guido, J. F. Carbonell-Bruhm, O. Nuñez, and E. Valdes . 1958. Investigaciones sobre Acridoideos del Uruguay. Facultad de Agronomía, Montevideo. 485. pp. Google Scholar

    130.

    Y. Sjöstedt 1933. Orthopterentypen im Naturhistorischen Reichsmuseum zu Stockholm. 2, Acrididae. Arkiv för Zoologi 24:1–89. 20 pl. Google Scholar

    131.

    F. B. Smithe 1975. Naturalists' Color Guide. American Museum Natural History, New York. 6. pp., 7 pl. Google Scholar

    132.

    M. J. Souza 1991. Two simple methods for the preparation of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of Orthoptera. Revista Brasileira de Genetica 14:1079–1084. Google Scholar

    133.

    M. J. Souza and M. H. Lobo-Silva . 1993. Effects of extra chromosome segments on chiasma distribution in Xyleus angulatus (Orthoptera: Romaleidae). Revista Brasileira de Genetica 16:23–33. Google Scholar

    134.

    C. Stål 1873a. Orthoptera nova descripsit. Kongliga Vetenskaps-akademiens Forhandlingar, Stockholm 30:39–53. Google Scholar

    135.

    C. Stål 1873b. Recensio Orthopterorum. Revue critique des Orthoptères décrits par Linné, De Geer et Thunberg. Norstedt & Söner, Stockholm, part 1. 154. pp. Google Scholar

    136.

    C. Stål 1876. Observations orthopterologiques. Aperçu des genres des acridoidées de l'Amerique du Nord. Bihang till Kongliga Swenka Vetenskaps-akademiens Handlingar 4:36–47. Google Scholar

    137.

    C. Stål 1878a. Systema acridiodeorum. Essai d'une systematisation des acridoidées. Bihang till Kongliga Swenka Vetenskaps-akademiens Handlingar 5:1–100. Google Scholar

    138.

    C. Stål 1878b. Observations orthopterologiques. De genere pezotettigis et nonnullis generibus affinibus. (Sur le Pezotettix et quelques genres voisins). Bihang till Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademien Handlingar 5:3–20. Google Scholar

    139.

    B. P. Uvarov 1940. Eleven new generic names in Orthoptera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser. 11 6:337–380. Google Scholar

    140.

    B. P. Uvarov and V. M. Dirsh . 1961. Diagnostic characters, scope and geographical distribution of the subfamily Romaleinae (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Proceedings Royal Entomological Society of London, (B) 30:153–160. Google Scholar

    141.

    P. E. Vanzolini and N. Papavero . 1968. Indice dos toponimos contidos na Carta do Brasil 1:1000000. FAPESP (Sao Paulo). 201. pp. Google Scholar

    142.

    M. J. Viana 1942. Observaciones sobre los Acrididae del Valle de Calamuchita, Córdoba. Ingeniería Agronómica, Buenos Aires 20:123–126. Google Scholar

    143.

    F. Walker 1870. Catalogue of the Specimens of Dermaptera Saltatoria in the Collection of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History). London Part 3:. 425–604. Part 4:. 605–809. Part 5:. 811–850. Google Scholar

    Appendices

    APPENDIX I

    The genus Xyleus and its species: taxonomy, synonymy, localities of collection, references

    Repositories of specimens are designated by the following:

    ANN ARBOR / Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, USA.

    BERLIN / Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt Universität, Germany.

    BUENOS AIRES / Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Argentina.

    LA PLATA / Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, La Plata, Argentina.

    MADRID / Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, España.

    MARACAY / Departamento de Zoología Agrícola, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela.

    MONTEVIDEO / Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Uruguay.

    NEBRASKA / Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA.

    PARIS/Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

    PHIL. / Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, USA.

    RECIFE / Universidad Federal de Pernambuco, Recife. Brasil.

    RIO CLARO / Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP., Brasil.

    RIO DE JANEIRO /

    SÃO PAULO / Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil.

    STOCKHOLM /

    TUCUMAN / Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina.

    WASHINGTON / US National Museum, Washington DC, USA.

    Abbreviations.— In the lists of examined specimens, and also in bibliographic data for each species, a number of abbreviations are used. They are: biogeogr., biogeography; bionom., bionomics; ecol., ecology; econ., economic importance; btw., between; Depto, Department [of a country]; descr., description; distr., geographical distribution; f., female; illustr., illustration; m., male; m-alt., altitude in meters; misid., misidentification; Mun., Municipio (division of a State in Brasil); nr, near; pathol., pathology; Prov., Province; redescr., redescription. Months are abbreviated by their first three letters. Other abbreviations are those in current use in scientific papers. The abbreviation “BR” followed by a number refers to the Federal Highways in Brasil.

    Genus XYLEUS Gistel 1848

  • Tropinotus Serville 1831: 272, 1839: 617 (redescription). Brullé 1835: 219 (as part of Pamphagus). Blanchard 1851: 63 (refers only to species now placed in genera different from Xyleus). Walker 1870: 529. Stål 1873a: 52 (division of genus), 1873b: 27 (in key to genera). Kirby 1890: 587 (Gryllus serratus and Tropinotus discoideus as types of the genus); 1910: 359 (T. discoideus as type of the genus). Rehn 1901: 272; 1907: 170 (genus discussed, T. discoideus as its type). Bruner 1905: 215 (key to species); 1906: 645 (key to species); 1907: 209 (Biol. C. Amer.)(in key to genera). Not Tropinotus Kuhl 1822 (Reptilia, Serpentes).

  • Xyleus Gistel 1848: XI, nomen novum for Tropinotus Serville 1831, preoccupied by Tropinotus Kuhl 1822 (Reptilia). Caudell 1932: 3 (nomenclature of genus). Uvarov 1940: 379 (nomenclature of genus). Roberts 1937: 352 (nomenclature of genus); 1941: 239 (in list of Romaleinae). Rehn & Grant 1959: 248, 250 (in tribe Prionolophini, phallic complex of several species illustr.). Uvarov & Dirsh 1961: 158. Dirsh 1961: 395 (in list of genera of Romaleinae). Bucher 1974: 51 (biogeogr., ecol. in Argentina.) Rowell 1987: 478 (ecol., Costa Rican spp.). Rowell & Flook 1998: 147–156 (molecular systematics, phylogeny).

  • Tropeonotus Stål 1876: 37 (in key to genera). Uvarov 1940: 379.

  • Tropidonotus Stål 1878a: 14 (in key to genera); 1878b: 19 (misprinted as Trapidonotus, key to species). Brunner von Wattenwyl 1893: 133 (in key to genera). Giglio-Tos 1898: 41 (in key to genera). Bruner 1900: 55 (key to species). Rehn 1901: 272 (emended form, not valid). Caudell 1932: 3 (name preoccupied). Roberts 1937: 352 (synonymy). Uvarov 1940: 379 (synonymy). Not Tropidonotus Boie 1826 (Reptilia, Serpentes).

  • Diedronotus Bolivar 1906: 393 nomen novum for Tropinotus Serville (preoccupied); 1909: 352 (in key to genera). Kirby 1910: 359 (indication of discoideus Serville as type of the genus). Bruner 1911: 47–49 (distr., key to spp.). Uvarov 1940: 379 (as synonym of Xyleus).

  • Paralcamenes Bolivar 1909: 341. Type-species P. camposi Bolivar 1909. n. syn.

  • Species of the genus Xyleus (in alphabetical order)

    In the text that follows, data on specimen labels are given in full for types, type-series and for all specimens of uncommon or little-known species. In the case of common species of which very large series have been examined, only the names of the different localities of collection are given, in order to save space.

    Xyleus aimara n. sp. (Figs 27, 28, 29, 31, 44, Table 19)

    Holotype.— A male labeled “Bolivia, Chiquitos, alrededores de Sucre, 15-VI-1948 C.S. Carbonell”. The holotype is the only specimen known. Deposited in PHIL.

    Etymology.— Named after the Aimara Nation of the Amerindian people, inhabitants of the region where the species was found.

    Xyleus andinus n. sp. (Figs 13, 14, 15, 18, 43, Table 10)

    Holotype.— a male labeled “Bolivia, Depto Santa Cruz, Provincia Sara [now Prov. Gutiérrez] 500 m-alt. Jan 20–Feb 5, 1922 (J. Steinbach)”, PHIL.

    Paratypes.— PERU. Depto Junín: 2♂♂, 2♀♀, Chanchamayo, 1200 m-alt. May 1948 (J.M. Schunke), WASH. 2♂♂, 1♀, Chanchamayo (no additional data); 1♂, 1♀, Campamento Rio Perené, Jun 1920; 1♂, 1♀, Puerto Yessup, Feb 1930 (M.A. Carriker); 1♀, Satipo, Feb 1943 (P. Paprzyki), PHIL. 2♂♂, 1♀, Satipo, Feb, Apr, May 1944 (P. Paprzycki) ANN ARBOR. Depto Cusco: 2♂♂, Prov. La Convención, Kiteni on Rio Urubamba (M. Descamps, CS. Carbonell), MONTEVIDEO. BOLIVIA. Depto Beni: Prov. José Ballivian: 3♂♂, 4♀♀, Rurrenabaque 227 m-alt. low tropical region, Oct 1936 (L.E. Peña), ANN ARBOR. Depto La Paz: Prov. Nor-Yungas: 1♂, Rio San Pedro, 5 mi S of Santa Ana 850 m-alt. (L.E. Peña); 1♂, btw. Caranavi & Santa Ana 1100 m-alt. Jan 1976 (L.E. Peña), PHIL. Depto Cochabamba: Prov. Chapare: 1♂, Alto Palmar, Rio Chapare 1100 m-alt. Sept–Nov 1960 (no collector), PHIL. Prov. Arani: 1♂, El Palmar 920 m-alt., forested region, Sept 1956 (L.E. Peña), ANN ARBOR. Depto Santa Cruz. Prov. Andrés Ibañez: 4♂♂, 2♀♀, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Apr 1962 (A. Mesa), MONTEVIDEO. 1♂, Rio Espejo, 400 m-alt. Feb 1962 (Walz); Prov. Ichilo: 1♂, Nueva Nova, 400 m-alt. (no date or collector);1♀, Buena Vista (J. Steinbach); 2♂♂, 2♀♀, Prov Sara (now Prov. Gutiérrez), 450 m-alt. (no date) (J. Steinbach); 1♂, Prov. Sara (now Prov. Gutiérrez), 500 m-alt., Feb 1927 (J. Steinbach). 1♂, Depto Santa Cruz [no province or locality recorded] 500 m-alt. Jan–Feb 1922 (J. Steinbach), PHIL.

    Etymology.— Its name refers to the range of the species, which lies within the eastern slopes of the Andes in Bolivia and Perú.

    Xyleus araguaia n. sp. (Figs 21, 22, 24, 27, 44, Table 14)

    Type series.— Male holotype, a male and a female paratype, from BRASIL, Mato Grosso, 30 km NW of Alto Araguaia, 750 m-alt. 10 Mar 1980 (H.R. Roberts, O. Roppa, C.S. Carbonell). Those in the type series are the only specimens known. RIO DE JANEIRO.

    Etymology.— This is a geographical name related to the collection locality; it is the name of a large river, tributary to the Amazon. Its etymology is not clear and there are several interpretations of the meaning of this name, according to Irmão José Gregório (1980: 446).

    Xyleus attenuatus (Rehn 1909) (Figs 21, 22, 23, 27, 45, Table 13)

  • Tropinotus attenuatus Rehn 1909: 118. Liebermann 1955: 335 (distr.).

  • Diedronotus attenuatus; Bruner 1911: 52.

  • Xyleus attenuatus; Liebermann 1949: 4 (distr. N W Argentina, misid.?). Mesa et al. 1983: 516 (chromosomes).

  • Holotype.— a male labeled “Chapada, Sept. Type N° 12083 USNM”, in WASH. The locality named as “Chapada” is Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brasil.

    Specimens examined.— BRASIL. State of Rondonia: 1♂, 1♀, Vilhena, Nov 1987 (O. Roppa, P. Magno). State of Sergipe: 1♂,1♀ Areia Branca, Feb 1981 (H.R. Roberts, O. Roppa, C. S. Carbonell) PHIL. State of Mato Grosso: Chapada dos Guimarães; 1♂, 1♀, Nov 1965 (M. Alvarenga) ANN ARBOR. 5♂♂, 7♀, Sept 1978 (M.A. Monné, J. Becker, O. Roppa); 3♂♂, 2♀♀, Jul 1983. 1♂, Diamantino, May 1980 (B. Silva) RIO DE JANEIRO. State of Goias: 1♀, 17 km S. of Cristalina, Jul 1976 (A. Mesa, A. Ferreira) RIO CLARO. State of Minas Gerais: Serra do Cabral, Penedo, Jul 1933, RIO DE JANEIRO. BOLIVIA. Depto La Paz: 1♀, Prov. Apolo, 14°43' S, 68°31′ W (L.E. Peña) PHIL.

    Xyleus camposi (Bolívar 1909) n. comb. (Fig. 35. Table 22)

  • Paralcamenes camposi Bolivar 1909: 341. Campos 1921: 86, 1923: 21.

  • Colpolopha camposi Hebard 1924b: 179. Rosas-Costa 1963: 308 (syn. with Paralcamenes camposi). Otte 1978: 130, (location of type).

  • Holotype of Paralcamenes camposi, a female from Posorja (Prov. Guayas) Ecuador, (F. Campos, coll.) in MADRID. There are 4 females of this species, one of them labeled by Bolivar as Paralcamenes camposi is here considered to be the holotype of the species. According to Bolivar (1909: 341) the holotype is a male. However, there is no male in the type-series, and the measurements given by Bolivar are those of the female, here considered to be the holotype. Holotype of Colpolopha camposi, a female, in PHIL., labeled Posorja, Guayas, Ecuador, at sea level (F. Campos) (Hebard type N° 952).

  • Examination of the above types and comparison of their photographs leave no doubt of their belonging to the same species.

    Taxonomy.— I see no reason to consider this species as belonging to a genus different from Xyleus. It probably represents the only short-winged species of the genus. As to its affinities, both its general aspect and their geographic origin, suggest that it belongs to the Discoideus group. Apparently the collector, the Ecuadorian entomologist F. Campos, sent specimens of the very same species to Bolivar and later to Hebard, and they were identified as indicated above. It may represent a brevialate form of X. rosulentus which is the species found farther north in Colombia. Its real affinities could only be ascertained by examination of the male phallic complex, but no males of the species have been available.

    Xyleus discoideus angulatus (Stål 1873135) new status (Figs 5, 8, 9, 13, 38, Table 4)

  • Tropinotus angulatus Stål 1873a: 52, 1873b: 44. Bruner 1906: 646 (distr. Paraguay, misid.). Rehn 1909: 118 (distr., only Pernambuco, others, misid.). Liebermann 1955: 335 (distr. in part misid.). Sjöstedt 1933: 31 (location of type, illustr.). Roberts 1937: 352 (misid.). Hayward 1960 (distr., Argentina, misid.). Guagliumi 1962: 449 (attacking sugarcane, Venezuela, misid.), 1973: 31 (attacking sugarcane, NE Brasil).

  • Trapidonotus [sic] angulatus; Stål 1878b: 19 (misprint for Tropidonotus?).

  • Tropidonotus angulatus; Pictet & Sausure 1887: 335. Giglio-Tos 1894: 16, (distr., Argentina, Paraguay, misid.), 1895: 81 (distr. Paraguay, misid.) Bruner 1900: 56 (distr., Argentina, misid.). Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr. Argentina., misid.). Passerin 1981: 35 (specimens in Mus Torino, misid.).

  • Diedronotus angulatus; Bruner 1911: 50 (distr. Brasil, Mato Grosso, misid.), 1913a: 181 (distr. Peru, misid.), 1913b: 461 (distr. Bolivia, misid.). Rehn 1913b: 330 (distr. NW Argentina, misid.), 1916: 283 (distr. NE Brasil only, others due to misid.). Kirby 1910: 360. Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr. Argentina, Tucumán, misid.), 1935: 37 (distr. Argentina, misid.), 1939: 173 (distr. mostly misid.).

  • Xyleus angulatus; Liebermann 1951: 46 (distr., misid.), 1947: 392 (distr. misid.). Rehn & Grant 1959: 250 (phallic complex figured). COPR 1982: 120 (econ., distr. mostly misid.). Souza 1991: 1079–84 (chromosomes). Souza, & Lobo-Silva 1993: 23–33 (chromosomes).

  • Holotype.— a male labeled “Bahia” “Linsley” genitalia “CSC-1074”, in STOCKHOLM.

    Among the above references, the one by Guagliumi (1962) certainly refers to X. discoideus venezuelae, here described. Most others refer to X. modestus (Giglio-Tos) (see below, under this species).

    Specimens examined: 110, from the following localities. BRASIL. State of Ceara: Crato, Serra do Araripe [850 m-alt.]. State of Rio Grande do Norte: Natal; Ceara Mirim; Barbalha. State of Paraiba: Brejo das Freiras. State of Pernambuco: Recife, Igaraçu; Repressa Gurjau in Municipio Cabo; BR 232, Serra das Russas, near Gravatá; BR 232, btw. Mimoso & Arcoverde; Belem do São Francisco, Ilha do Estado; Buique; Serra Talhada; Araripina; Gravatá to Pesqueira; Arcoverde; Aldeia; Caruarú 900 m-alt.; Bonito. State of Bahia: BR 234 100 km NW of Feira de Santana; 60 km W. of Feira de Santana; Cruz das Almas; Maracas; Vila de Fatima; Conceição de Feira Murro; Itupeva, Estrada Monte Santo [caatinga]; Livramento do Brumado; Jaguarari; Palmeiras; Vila Nova; Jequie-Barragem de Pedra; BR 116 at Minas Gerais border; Maracas. State of Alagoas: Coruripe.

    Atypical specimens.— State of Minas Gerais: 5♂♂, 1♂, Pedra Azul; 3m, Aguas Vermelhas; 1♂, Taiobeiras. These specimens, from the southernmost part of the territory occupied by X. d. angulatus are similar to it in their aspect and coloration, but their phallic complex is somewhat atypical. In a first study they seemed to belong to X. andinus, but on closer examination were atypical X. d. angulatus. Being in the limit between the known distributions of X. d. angulatus and X. d. discoideus, they may represent an intermediate form between these 2 subspecies. While the cingulum is definitely of the angulatus shape, the apical endophallic valves are of a rather unusual shape, closer to those in the Laevipes group, particularly of the species laevipes, andinus or goias.

    Specimens mentioned above in ANN ARBOR, MONTEVIDEO, PHIL., RECIFE, RIO DE JANEIRO, SAO PAULO.

    Xyleus discoideus discoideus (Serville 1831) (Figs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 37, Table 3)

  • Tropinotus discoideus Serville 1831: 273, 1839: 619. Charpentier 1845: IV, tab.32. (illustr. prob. this sp.). Erichson 1848: 582 (distr. Guyana, misid.). Walker 1870: 530 (distr. mostly misid.). Rehn 1905: 37 (distr. Paraguay.), 1907: 170 (color variations, distr. Paraguay), 1911: 251 (distr. Paraguay). Bruner 1906: 646. Liebermann 1939: 172 (distr.), 1941a: 31 (distr.), 1941b: 156 (distr. Argentina.), 1955: 335 (distr. Brasil.). Liebermann & Pirán 1941: 10 (distr. Uruguay.). Viana 1942: 124 (distr.). Baucke 1954: 9 (distr.). Hayward 1960: 78 (distr.). Bucher 1974: 51,83 (bionom.).

  • Xiphocera discoidea; Burmeister 1838: 615.

  • Pamphagus discoideus; Blanchard 1840: 38.

  • Trapidonotus [sic] discoideus; Stål 1878b: 19 (misprint for Tropidonotus?).

  • Tropidonotus discoideus; Bolivar 1884: 32. Pictet & Saussure 1887: 335 (distr. misid.). Giglio-Tos 1894: 16 (distr.), 1895: 812 (distr. Paraguay.), 1897: 29 (distr. Argentina, Bolivia.), 1900: 4 (distr. Brasil, Mato Grosso.). Bruner 1900: 56. Petrunkewitsch & Guaita 1901: 292 (stridulatory apparatus). Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr., in part misid.). Passerin 1981: 34,37,43,47,48,90,100 (specimens in Mus. Torino).

  • Diedronotus discoideus; Kirby 1910: 360. Bruner 1913b: 462 (distr. Paraguay.). Rehn 1913b: 330 (distr. NE Argentina.), 1915: 284 (distr. Argentina), 1917: 347 (distr. Brasil, Rio de Janeiro), 1918a: 200 (distr. S. Brasil.). Liebermann 1935: 37 (distr. Argentina, in part misid., Uruguay.).

  • Xyleus discoideus; Roberts 1941: 219 (phallic complex figured). Liebermann & Ruffinelli (distr. Uruguay.). Mesa et al. 1983: 516 (chromosomes). COPR 1982: 121 (econ.). Costa & Jantsch 1999: 140 (econ. S. Brasil).

  • Xyleus scabripes (Stål 1878138) n. syn.

  • Trapidonous [sic] scabripes Stål 1878b: 19. (misprint for Tropidonotus?).

  • Tropidonotus scabripes; Pictet & Saussure 1887. Sjöstedt 1933: 30 (location of type, illustr.).

  • Tropinotus scabripes; Bruner 1906: 648. Liebermann 1955: 335.

  • Diedronotus scabripes; Kirby 1910: 361. Bruner 1911: 52 (distr.).

  • Xyleus scabripes; Costa & Jantsch 1999: 141 (econ., S. Brasil).

  • Xyleus affinis (Bruner 1906) n. comb., n. syn.

  • Tropinotus affinis; Bruner 1906: 646. Rehn 1908: 12 (distr. Brasil).

  • Diedronotus affinis; Kirby 1910: 360.

  • Xyleus fuscipennis (Bruner 1911) n. syn.

  • Diedronotus fuscipennis Bruner 1911: 51.

  • Tropidonotus fuscipennis; Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr.).

  • Tropinotus fuscipennis; Liebermann 1939: 173 (distr.). Liebermann & Piran 1941: 10 (distr., econ.). Mesa 1956: 34 (chromosomes).

  • Xyleus fuscipennis; Liebermann & Rufinelli 1946:10 (distr. econ.).

  • Silveira et al. 1958: 445–454 (redescr., econ.). Mesa et al. 1983: 516 (chromosomes).

  • Holotypes.— Of T. discoideus, a female labeled “Brésil” PARIS. Of T. scabripes, a male labeled “Sao Leopoldo, Stahl” STOCKHOLM. São Leopoldo is in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Of T. affinis, a female labeled “Sapucay, Paraguay, WT. Foster, Febr. USNM type N° 9732” WASH. Of D. fuscipennis, a female labeled “Montevideo” PHIL.

    Specimens examined.— 205, from the following localities. BRASIL. State of Bahia: Itamaraju. State of Goias: Rio Araguaia S. of Aruana; Aragarças; 15–30 km E. of Mineiros. State of Minas Gerais: Juiz de Fora; Barbacena; Poços de Caldas; Contagem; Carangola; São Geraldo; Ipanema; 46 km SE of Itajuba; Belo Horizonte. State of Espirito Santo: Linhares; Santa Teresa; Cariacica; Jaguare; Corrego do Ita; State of São Paulo: São José do Barroso [in Serra da Bocaina], 1600 m.alt.; Salto Grande; City of São Paulo; Piracicaba. State of Rio de Janeiro: Floresta de Tijuca [in City of Rio de Janeiro]; km 47 old road Rio-São Paulo [Seropedica]; Boca do Mato; Sernambetiba; Guapi Mirim; Angra dos Reis; Doutor Matos; Corcovado. State of Parana: São Jose dos Pinhais; Sete Quedas; BR 373, 5 km S. of Prudentopolis;15 km S. of Ceu Azul; Rondon; Atuba. State of Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia [300–500 m-alt.]; Corupá; Rio Vermelho; Rio Marombas; Campos Novos [Rio Ibicui]; Ribeirão dos Russos [Municipio Benedito Novo]; State of Rio Grande do Sul: Nonoai; Trindade; Barro Vermelho [Municipio Osorio]; Ronda Alta; Pelotas; Santo Augusto. BOLIVIA. Depto Santa Cruz: Prov. Chiquitos: Santiago. PARAGUAY. Depto Concepción: Horqueta. Depto Guairá: Villarica. Depto Caaguazú: Curuguatí; Caaguazú. Depto Alto Paraná: Puerto Presidente Franco; Puerto Bertoni. Depto Paraguari: Sapucay. Depto Itapuá: 8 km N. of San Rafael. ARGENTINA. Prov. Formosa: City of Formosa. Prov. Chaco: E.P.Anello [on road to Zapallar]. Prov. Misiones: Bemberg; Iguazú; Rio Paranay Guazú; Cerro Azul; Puerto Rico; San Javier. Prov. Corrientes: Gobernador Virasoro, Las Marías; Manantiales. Prov. Entre Rios: Pronunciamiento; Colón. URUGUAY. Whole country.

    The above specimens are in ANN ARBOR, LA PLATA, MONTE-VIDEO, PHIL., RIO CLARO, RIO DE JANEIRO, TUCUMAN.

    Xyleus discoideus mexicanus (Bruner 1906) new status (Figs 5, 6, 12, 13, 41, Table 7)

  • Tropinotus mexicanus Bruner 1906: 645, 1907 (Biol. C. Amer.): 225 (descr., distr.). Muma 1952:5 (female type in Nebraska). Otte 1978: 35 (location of type). Ramos et al.1982: 92 (edibility).

  • Diedronotus mexicanus; Kirby 1910: 360. Hebard 1932: 269 (distr. Mexico).

  • Xyleus mexicanus; Rehn & Grant 1959: 250, fig. 54 (phallic complex). Descamps 1975: 52 (distr. ecol.), 1976: 298 (ecol.)

  • Xyleus centralis (Rehn 1918115) n. syn

  • Diedronotus centralis Rehn 1918b: 329. Hebard 1932: 269 (distr. Oaxaca, descr. of male). Otte 1978: 55 (location of type).

  • Xyleus centralis; Rehn & Grant 1959: 250 fig 56 (phallic complex, misid.?). Astacio Cabrera 1975: 34 (redescr. bionom. econ. illustr.). Rowell 1998: 227 (survival, conservation). Descamps 1975: 52 (possible synonymy X. mexicanus = X. centralis suggested).

  • Holotypes.— Of T. mexicanus, this species was described by Bruner (1906) only in a key of species of the genus. Male and female specimens were mentioned, from “Yucatan” [Mexico] and “Honduras”. It was stated that the species would be further described in Biologia Centrali Americana. In this publication (1907: 225) a short description is given, and it is stated that the species comes from “Mexico, Vera Cruz; Temax and other localities in Yucatán”. There is in PHIL. a single male marked as type, labeled “Temax, N.Yucatan, Gaumer, # H 295”, here considered to be the holotype of the species. Type series of D. centralis, a male [holotype] labeled “El Pelon, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, Jan 1915, P. Biolley” “#5354”. Also a female paratype. PHIL.

    Specimens examined.— 42, from the following localities: MEXICO. State of Veracruz; Medellín. State of Yucatán: E. of Tunkás; Chichén Itzá; Izamal; W. of Buctotz; Mérida. State of Quintana Roo: Nuevo X-Can. State of Colima; 8 mi. S. of Colima. State of Michoacán: 15 mi. W of Caleta de Campos, near Playa Azul; 16–20 km. NE of Road Ixtapa-Altamirano. State of Oaxaca: 2 mi. E of Jalapa del Marques; Almoloya; 45 mi. NW of Tequisistlan. State of Chiapas: Ocozoquantla; Escuintla. GUATEMALA. Escuintla-Tiquisate. HONDURAS: Progreso; Tela. NICARAGUA: Greytown [now San Juan del Norte]; Rivas Javillo; Managua. COSTA RICA: Guanacaste.

    The above mentioned specimens are in ANN ARBOR, MONTE-VIDEO, PHIL., RIO DE JANEIRO.

    Xyleus discoideus rosulentus (Stål 1878138) new status (Figs 5, 6, 11, 13, 40, Table 6)

  • Trapidonotus [sic] rosulentus Stål 1878b: 19 (misprint for Tropidonotus?).

  • Tropidonotus rosulentus; Pictet & Saussure 1887: 335. Bruner 1895: 64 (distr. Nicaragua, illustr. male). Brunner von Wattenwyl 1900: 255 (distr. Ecuador [?]). Scudder 1901: 336 (distr. Nicaragua, misid.). Sjöstedt 1933: 30 (location of type, illustr.).

  • Tropinotus rosulentus; Bruner 1907: 225 (Biol. Centr. Am.) (distr., in part misid.).

  • Diedronotus rosulentus; Kirby 1910: 360. Rehn 1913a: 88 (distr. Surinam, misid.). Hebard 1923: 223 (distr. in Colombia) 1924a: 102 (distr. Panama). Campos 1923: 21 (in Ecuador as indicated by Brunner v. W.)

  • Xyleus rosulentus; Caudell 1932: 3 (distr. Panama). Hebard 1933a: 44, (distr. Colombia), 1933b: 129 (distr. Panama). Rehn & Grant 1959: 250 (phallic complex figured). Descamps & Amedegnato 1970: 863 (distr. French Guiana, misid.).

  • Holotype male labeled “N. Granada, Dämel”, Genitalia CSC 1073. [Nueva Granada being an old name for Colombia]. STOCKHOLM.

    Specimens examined.— 40, from the following localities: COSTA RICA: Pozo Azul de Pirris [in Osa Peninsula]. PANAMA. Canal Zone; several localities. Prov. Panamá: near Chepo. COLOMBIA. Depto Atlántico: Puerto Colombia. Depto Magdalena: Las Pavas; Bonda; Rio Frío, Tucurinca; Aracataca; Santa Marta-Mamatoco; Dpto. Cundinamarca: Las Mesitas. Depto Meta: Villavicencio; Puerto López. The above specimens are in PHIL. and ANN ARBOR.

    Xyleus discoideus venezuelae n. ssp. (Figs 5, 6, 10, 13, 39, Table 5)

    Holotype.— male from Venezuela, Curimagua, San Lorenzo. 1040 m-alt. May 1993 (F. Cerdá, L. Joly, U. Savini, A. Chacón) MARACAY.

    Paratypes.— VENEZUELA, State of Zulia: 1♂, Kasmera, Rio Yasa, 250 m-alt., Dec 1962 (R. Lichy, A. Perez) MARACAY. State of Falcon: 1♂, Curimagua, 980 m-alt., Nov 1971 (R. Casares, J.B. Terán, C. Padron) MARACAY; State of Carabobo: Palmichal, nr Canuabo, Mar 1987, (F. Cerdá) MARACAY; State of Aragua: 1♂, Portachuelo, Rancho Grande. 1100 m-alt. Sept 1983 (A. Chacón); 1♀, Cagua, 450 m-alt. Dec 1963 (V. Mendoza), 1♀, El Limón, 450 m-Alt. Oct 1979 (J.A. Clavijo), MARACAY. State of Miranda: Est. Exp. Rio Negro, nr. Capaya, 100 m-alt. Nov 1977 (C. Andara, J. Clavijo) MARACAY. State of Trujillo: 1♂, Santa Isabel, 250 m-alt. Oct 1983 (A. Azuaje) MARACAY. State Portuguesa: 1♂, 2♀♀, Mesa de Cavaca-Guanare, 180 m-alt. Nov 1982 (MS. Moratorio) MONTEVIDEO; State of Guárico: 1♂, Calabozo area, S. of Rio Orituco, treeless plain, Jul 1981, (D. Otte & al.) PHIL. State of Monagas: 1♂, Jusepin, 50 m-alt. Oct 1965 (F. Fernández-Y, CJ. Rosales) MARACAY. State of Táchira: 1♂, Táchira, Apr 1920 (J. & E.B. Williamson) ANN ARBOR. 1♂, Compl. Hidroelectr. Ruiz-Pinedo, Las Cuevas, 07°47′ N, 71°47′ W, (C.J. Rosales, L. Joly, J. de Marmels, A. Chacón) MARACAY. State of Mérida: 1♂, El Chivo, Dec 1969 (R. Casares, M. Terán, M. Gelbe) MARACAY. State of Bolívar: 2♂♂, Rio Panagua, E of Rio Chiguao, 425 m-alt, Aug 1983 (Exp. Inst. Zool. Agrícola); 1♂, El Barroso, Rio Matupo, Jan 1972 (J. Salcedo) MARACAY. 1♂, Ciudad Bolívar, Sep 1909 (J.A. Carriker); 1♂ Ciudad Bolívar Oct 1940 (P. Anduze) PHIL.

    Specimens not marked as paratypes.— (pronotum atypical): State of Carabobo: 1♂, 1♀, San Esteban, Nov. 1939 (P. Anduze) PHIL. State of Bolivar: 1♂, El Pao, Nov 1988, (B. Bechyné) MARACAY. These specimens not marked as paratypes might represent intermediate forms between X. d. rosulentus and X. d. venezuelae, but their places of collection do not correspond to such status.

    Xyleus goias n. sp. (Figs 13, 14, 15, 19, 45, Table 11)

    Holotype.— male from BRASIL, Goias State: Minaçu, Dec 1987, (M.A. Monné, O. Roppa) in RIO DE JANEIRO. Paratypes: 4♂♂, 1♀, same data as holotype; 1♂, Goias State: Municipio Cavalcanti, Vila Borba, Dec 1987 (M.A. Monné, O. Roppa); 1♂, Pirapora, Nov 1977, (C.A.C. Seabra, M.A. Monné, O. Roppa),1♂, Curvelo, Nov 1977, (C.A.C. Seabra, M.A. Monné, O. Roppa) RIO DE JANEIRO. Amapa State: 1♂, Rio Anicohe, Jun 1951 (J. Lane), SAO PAULO. Mato Grosso State: 1♂, Barra do Tapirape, Jan 1966 (B. Malkin) SAO PAULO. 1♂, 1♀, Chapada dos Guimarães, Nov. 1963 (M. Alvarenga), ANN ARBOR. Those in the type series are the only specimens known.

    Etymology.— A geographical name, from the Brazilian State of Goias, where most specimens of this species were found. Originally the name of an Amerindian tribe living in that region (Irmão Jose Gregorio 1980:702)

    Xyleus gracilis (Bruner 1905) (Figs 21, 22, 25, 27, 37, Table 15)

  • Tropinotus gracilis Bruner 1905: 215 (descr. in key only), 1906: 648 (probably reaching E. Paraguay). Grossbeck 1912: 357 (2 “cotypes” in American Mus. N. H.). Muma 1952: 5 (type in NEBRASKA). Liebermann 1955: 335 (distr. Brasil).

  • Diedronotus gracilis; Kirby 1910:361.

  • Xyleus gracilis: Mesa et al. 1983: 516 (chromosomes). Costa & Jantsch 1999: 140 (distr. econ.).

  • Type series of 2 males and 3 females, labeled “São Paulo, Brazil, A. Hempel” in NEBRASKA. One of the males marked as hololectotype in 1970, here designated.

    Specimens examined.— BRASIL. State of Goias: 1♂, Jatai, Oct 1982 (L. Reis) RIO DE JANEIRO. State of Minas Gerais: 3 ♂ ♂, 2 ♀ ♀, Poços de Caldas, Morro do Ferro, Aug 1965, Aug 1967 (J. Becker, O. Roppa, S. Lancini); 4 ♀ ♀, Poços de Caldas Jul 1977, Aug 1979 (O. Roppa, J. Becker, B. Silva) RIO DE JANEIRO. State of São Paulo: 1 ♀, 8 km W. of Itirapina, Nov 1994 (A. Mesa, P. Garcia, C.S. Carbonell), 1 ♂, Piracicaba, May 1962 (A. Mesa) MONTEVIDEO. 1 ♂, Campos do Jordão, Mar 1945 (P. Wygodzinski) RIO DE JANEIRO. State of Parana: 1 ♀, Curitiba, Feb 1941 (J.R. Bailey) ANN ARBOR State of Rio Grande do Sul: 1 ♂, 3 ♀ ♀, Santo Augusto, Sep 1977 (O. Roppa) RIO DE JANEIRO. 2 ♀ ♀, Ronda Alta, Feb 1964, (C.S. Carbonell, A. Mesa, M.A. Monné) MONTEVIDEO. PARAGUAY. Depto Cordillera: 1 ♀, Itacurubí, Mar 1965 (C.S. Carbonell, A. Mesa, M.A. Monné) MONTEVIDEO. ARGENTINA. Prov. Misiones: 1 ♀, (no additional data) LA PLATA.

    Xyleus guarani (Rehn 1907) n. comb. (Figs 27, 28, 29, 33, 45, Table 21)

  • Tropinotus guarani Rehn 1907: 170. Liebermann 1939: 175. Otte 1978: 59 (location of type).

  • Diedronotus guarani; Kirby 1910: 361.

  • Male holotype.— labeled “Sapucay, Paraguay, II-25-05 Foster”. A female paratype, same locality, III-9-05, 3 female topotypes, in PHIL.

    Specimens examined.— BRASIL. State of Mato Grosso: 1 ♂, Chapada dos Guimarães, Jan 1972 (R.A. Ronderos, C.S. Carbonell), MONTE-VIDEO. 1 ♂ BR 364, km 558, Feb 1978 (B. Silva), RIO DE JANEIRO. State of São Paulo: 1 ♂, Piraçununga, May 1972 (A. Mesa, E. Bran), RIO CLARO. BOLIVIA. Depto Santa Cruz; 1 ♂, Prov. Sara [now Prov. Gutiérrez], 1922 (J. Steinbach), PHIL.

    The following female specimens have been tentatively identified as this species on rather slight evidence derived from the shape of the subgenital plate and the length of the fastigium. They are almost identical with the females of X. regularis. BRASIL. State of Goias: 1 ♀, 20 km S. of Brasilia, Jul 1972, (A. Mesa, A. Ferreira) RIO CLARO. State of São Paulo: 1 ♀, Franca, Jan 1911, (Garbe) PHIL. PARAGUAY. Depto Paraguarí: 2 ♀ ♀, Sapucay, Mar 1905 (Foster) PHIL. Depto Caaguazú; 1 ♀, near Ihú (C.S. Carbonell, A. Mesa, M.A. Monné); MONTEVIDEO.

    Xyleus insignis (Giglio-Tos 1894) (Figs 27, 28, 29, 30, 44, Table 18)

  • Tropidonotus insignis Giglio-Tos 1894: 16, 1897: 29 (distr., SE Bolivia). Bruner 1900: 57 (distr. Argentina). Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr. Argentina). Passerin 1981: 35, 43 (location of type and specimens in TORINO).

  • Tropinotus insignis; Bruner 1906: 646 (distr. Paraguay?). Liebermann 1939: 173 (distr.), 1942: 25 (distr., possible syn. of T. uvarovi), 1954: 7 (distr. Argentina), 1958: 7 (distr. Formosa), 1972: 195 (econ.). Viana 1942: 124 (distr. Córdoba). Hayward 1960: 78 (econ.). Bucher 1974: 51 (ecol.). Gangwere & Ronderos 1975: 178 (food selection).

  • Diedronotus insignis; Kirby 1910: 361. Liebermann 1935: 38 (distr.). Viana 1942: 124 (distr.).

  • Xyleus insignis; Liebermann 1948: 76 (distr.), 1949: 4 (distr.). Mesa et al. 1983: 516 (chromosomes). Barreira & Turk 1977: 178 (etology, oviposition). COPR 1982: 121 (econ.).

  • Xyleus conspersus (Bruner 1900) n. syn.

  • Tropidonotus conspersus Bruner 1900: 56. Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr.). Muma 1952: 5 (type in NEBRASKA).

  • Diedronotus conspersus; Kirby 1910: 361. Liebermann 1935: 38.

  • Tropinotus conspersus; Liebermann 1939: 175 (distr.), 1967: 98 (location of type).

  • Xyleus [misprinted as “Xyles”] conspersus; Hayward 1960: 79 (distr.). COPR 1982: 120 (econ.).

  • Xyleus uvarovi (Liebermann 1935) n. comb., n. syn

  • Diedronotus uvarovi Liebermann 1935: 38

  • Tropinotus uvarovi; Liebermann 1939: 175 (distr.), 1942: 25 (distr., probable synonym of T. insignis).

  • Holotypes.— Of T. insignis, a female labeled “Salta, Argentina” in TORINO. Of T. conspersus, a male labeled “Cordoba, Argentina, F. Schulz” in NEBRASKA. In Bruner's publication, male and female specimens are mentioned, but the female was not found. The male holotype has its abdomen empty, paraprocts and genitalia are missing. It belongs without doubt to the species T. insignis. Bruner suggests this in its description, by saying: “…in stature similar to T. insignis. May be a dusky form of that species”. Type-series of Diedronotus uvarovi, a female holotype stated by Liebermann (1935) to be labeled “La Rioja, M. Gómez, N° 27287” and a female paratype labeled “Catamarca, M. Gómez, N° 30223” in BUENOS AIRES. Only the paratype from Catamarca was examined. It corresponds to X. insignis, and is conspecific with the holotype according to Liebermann's description. The synonymy suggested by Liebermann (1942: 25) is here confirmed.

    Specimens examined.— 250 from: BRASIL. State of Mato Grosso do Sul: Urucum, [near] Corumbá; BOLIVIA. Depto Tarija: Piedra Pintada (21°35′S, 64°40′W). ARGENTINA. Prov. Salta: Campo Belgrano; Las Víboras; Carahuasi [140 km S. of Ciudad de Salta]; Tartagal; San Lorenzo; Tala; La Candelaria; 15–30 km S. of General Güemes; Las Mesitas (Route 34, 900 malt. Opuntia-Prosopis area); Prov. Chaco: Resistencia; Ruta 11 at Arroyo Palometa; Parque Nacional del Chaco. Prov. Catamarca: Dique Cuyanasta; Las Animas. Prov. Tucumán: Tapia; La Soledad (11 km W of Las Cejas). Prov. Santiago del Estero: 10–15 km SE. of Rio Hondo; Ruta 5, 50–80 km NE of La Banda (160 m-alt.) Prov. Corrientes: Chavarría. Prov. La Rioja: La Rioja; Mascasin. Prov. Córdoba: Cap. Santa María, Dique Rio Primero; Cabana; Tanti. Prov. Santa Fe: La Guampita. Prov. Entre Rios: Pronunciamiento.

    The specimens mentioned above in ANN ARBOR, LA PLATA, MONTEVIDEO, PHIL., TUCUMAN.

    Xyleus laevipes (Stål 1878138) (Figs 13, 14, 15, 16, 42, Table 8)

  • Trapidonotus [sic] laevipes Stål 1878b: 20 (misprint for Tropidonotus?).

  • Tropidonotus laevipes; Pictet & Saussure 1887: 335. Giglio-Tos 1895: 812. Bruner 1900: 57 (distr. habitat in open fields). Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr.) Sjöstedt 1933: 30 (location of type, illustr.).

  • Tropinotus laevipes; Bruner 1906: 648 (distr. Paraguay and S. to Buenos Aires). Rehn 1907: 173 (distr.). Liebermann 1939: 174 (distr.), 1941a: 31 (distr.), 1941b: 156 (distr.), 1955: 335 (distr.), 1958: 7 (distr. Formosa), 1967: 108 (distr.), 1972: 197 (econ.). Liebermann & Pirán 1941 (distr. Uruguay). Baucke 1954: 9 (distr. S. Brasil). Mesa 1956: 34 (chromosomes). Saez 1956: 24 (chromosomes). Gangwere & Ronderos 1975: 178 (food selection).

  • Diedronotus laevipes; Kirby 1910: 361. Bruner 1913b: 462 (distr. S. Bolivia). Rehn 1913b: 330 distr.), 1915: 284 (distr. Argentina), 1920: 245 (distr.) Hebard 1931: 272 (distr. Formosa). Liebermann 1935: 37 (distr.).

  • Xyleus laevipes; Blanchard 1945: 4 (distr., econ.). Liebermann 1946: 453 (distr.), 1948: 77 (distr.), 1951: 46 (distr.). Liebermann & Ruffinelli 1946: 11 (distr. Uruguay). Liebermann & Schiuma 1946: 38 (bionom., econ.). Dirsh 1956: 275, pl.31, fig. 10 (epiphallus illustr.). Ronderos 1959: 21, 27 (bionom. distr. illustr.). Mason 1969: 299 (tympanal organ), Mesa et al 1983: 516 (chromosomes). COPR 1982: 123 (econ.). Lange & Wysiecki 1996: 24–29 (pathol.). Costa & Jantsch 1999: 140 (distr. S. Brasil). Wysiecki et al. 2000: 217, 219 (bionom., distr.). Cigliano et al. 2000: 88 (bionom.).

  • Xyleus amabilis (Bolivar 1909) n. comb., n. syn

  • Diedronotus amabilis Bolivar 1909:341

  • Type series.— Of T. laevipes, male holotype and two female paratypes from “Sao Leopoldo” [Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil] STOCKHOLM. Holotype of D. amabilis, a male from “Sapucay, Paraguay” MADRID.

    Specimens examined.— 45, from the following localities. BRASIL. State of São Paulo: Municipio Itirapina, 8 km W. of Itirapina. State of Rio Grande do Sul: São Leopoldo [holotype]. PARAGUAY. Depto Cordillera: Itacurubí. Depto Paraguarí: Sapucay [Type of D. amabilis]. ARGENTINA. Prov. Jujuy: Santa Clara. Prov. Salta: Campo Belgrano; Santa Clara; Tartagal; San Lorenzo. Prov. Chaco: Resistencia; Parque Nacional del Chaco; Ruta Nacional 11, Arroyo Palometa. Prov. Tucumán: City of Tucumán. Prov. Santa Fe: Villa Ana; Carcarañá; Arocena. Prov. Corrientes: Bella Vista; General Villegas. Prov. Córdoba, San Francisco; Los Molinos. Prov. Entre Rios: Pronunciamiento. Prov. Buenos Aires: La Plata. URUGUAY. Depto Artigas: Arroyo de la Invernada. Depto Rivera: Sierra de la Aurora. Depto Paysandú: Puerto Pepeají. Depto Tacuarembó: Puntas Arroyo Laureles; Tacuarembó Chico. Depto Rio Negro: Rincón de Fray Bentos. Depto Florida: Casupá.

    The specimens mentioned above in ANN ARBOR, LA PLATA, MONTEVIDEO, PHIL., RIO DE JANEIRO, TUCUMAN.

    Xyleus laufferi (Bolivar 1891) n. comb. (Fig. 43, Table 17)

  • Tropidonotus laufferi Bolivar 1891: 317

  • Diedronotus laufferi; Kirby 1910: 361.

  • Tropinotus laufferi; Liebermann 1963: 64

  • Holotype.— a female labeled “Cumbase, enero 1887, Garleppi,” in MADRID. It is stated in Bolivar's text that it was obtained from Staudinger, the Dresden insect collector and dealer. The brothers Gustav and Otto Garlepp are known to have collected in Peru and Bolivia in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. A number of erroneous data may be noticed in Bolivar's description. The locality “Cumbase” is stated to be in “Alto Perú” (now Bolivia). Cumbase, however, is in Perú, Department of San Martín, very close to the town of Tarapoto. It is very probably what is marked in modern maps as San Roque de Cumbaza, 35 km WNW of the town of Tarapoto. The type is stated to be a male, but it is a female, and the measurements given in Bolivar's text correspond exactly to the female specimen in Madrid.

    No additional specimens that could be assigned to this species, coming from the general area where this type is stated to have been collected, are among the ones examined for this revision. This could mean that the type-specimen was mislabeled as to the locality of collection, a fact not unusual in insects obtained from dealers. But since it belongs to a rather uncommon species-group, it may be that the type really came from the said Peruvian locality, even if no further collections of the species have been made in the area.

    Xyleus lineatus (Bruner 1906) n. comb. (Figs 27, 28, 29, 32, 45, Table 20)

  • Tropinotus lineatus Bruner 1906: 648. Rehn 1907: 174 (distr. color phases). Kirby 1910: 361. Liebermann 1939: 175 (distr.). Muma 1952: 8 (paratype in NEBRASKA).

  • Diedronotus lineatus; Kirby 1910: 361. Bruner 1911: 53 (distr.).

  • Holotype.— According to Bruner (1906) the type-series consists of “Several specimens, both sexes”. There is in WASH., however, a single male specimen marked as “Type” by Bruner, labeled “Sapucay, Paraguay, W.T. Foster, 25 Feb 1903, Type N° 9733”. Its measurements and number correspond to data given by Bruner for the male. It is here considered to be the holotype of the species.

    Specimens examined.—ARGENTINA. Prov. Salta: 1 ♂, Pocitos, Dec. 1939 (M. Birabén) LA PLATA. PARAGUAY. Depto Paraguarí: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Sapucay, Feb–Mar 1905 (Foster) PHILADELPHIA. BRASIL. State of Mato Grosso: 1 ♂, Chapada de Guimarães, Jan 1972, (R.A. Ronderos, C.S. Carbonell). 1 ♂, 100 km N. of Campo Grande (R.A. Ronderos, C.S. Carbonell) MONTEVIDEO; 1 ♂, BR 364, km. 616, Feb 1978 (B. Silva), RIO DE JANEIRO. State of Goias: 1 ♂, Mun. Formosa, Apr 1992 (M.A. Monné); 1 ♀, Jataí, Feb 1979 (O. Roppa, B. Silva); 1 ♂, Minaçu, Dec 1987 (M.A. Monné, O. Roppa), RIO DE JANEIRO. State of São Paulo: 6 ♂ ♂, 1 ♀, Mun. Itirapina, 8 km. W. of Itirapina (A. Mesa, P. García, C.S. Carbonell), RIO CLARO.

    Xyleus modestus (Giglio-Tos 1894) (Figs 14, 15, 17, 44, Table 9)

  • Tropidonotus modestus Giglio-Tos 1894: 16. Bruner 1900: 56. Liebermann 1928: 147 (distr.). Passerin 1981: 35 (location of type)

  • Tropinotus modestus; Bruner 1906: 646 (distr.). Liebermann 1939: 194 (distr.).

  • Diedronotus modestus; Kirby 1910: 360. Liebermann 1935: 37 (distr.).

  • Xyleus modestus; Mesa et al. 1983: 516 (chromosomes).

  • Xyleus panteli (Bolivar 1902) n. comb., n. syn

  • Tropidonotus panteli Bolivar 1902: 612 (described as from Madura, India)

  • Xyleus schulzi (Bruner 1900) n. syn.

  • Tropidonotus schulzi Bruner 1900: 56 (type from Córdoba, Argentina).

  • Liebermann 1928: 147. Muma 1952: 5 (location of type).

  • Diedronotus schulzi; Kirby 1910: 360. Liebermann 1935: 38.

  • Tropinotus schulzi; Liebermann 1939: 174; 1954: 7; 1958: 7; 1967: 98. Viana 1942: 124. Hayward 1960: 78.

  • Xyleus schulzi; Liebermann 1946: 453; 1948: 77. COPR 1982: 121.

  • Xyleus strigatus (Bruner 1910) n. syn

  • Tropinotus strigatus Bruner 1910: 469 (partial description on specimen from Perú). Liebermann 1955: 335 (distr. Brasil), 1963: 64.

  • Diedronotus strigatus Bruner 1911: 50 (description on types from Brasil).

  • Xyleus strigatus; Rehn & Grant 1959: 250 (misid., phallic complex figured represents apical endophallic valves of X. andinus, here described).

  • Holotypes.— of T. modestus, a male, labeled “Resistencia, Chaco” [ex alcohol] (marked as holotype in 1966), (genitalia CSC 1091), in TORINO. Of T. schulzi, a male labeled “Cordoba, Argentina, F.Schulz” in NEBRASKA. Type series of D. strigatus, 1 male and 2 females from “Chapada near Cuyabá “H.H. Smith” labeled “Tropinotus strigatus” “Type” in PHILADELPHIA. The male in this series was marked as hololectotype in 1983, and is here designated as such. Type of T. panteli, a female labeled “Ind. Or, [India Oriental] P. Castets” in PARIS. It was described by Bolivar as coming from the town of Madura in Southern India, but indeed was mislabeled as to the locality. Certain features of this type are similar to those of recent specimens collected in eastern Paraguay.

    The case of X. strigatus is complex. In his paper of 1910, Bruner erects this species on a specimen from Peru: “east slopes of the Andes to the eastward of Cerro de Pasco”. He does not make a formal description, giving just a few indications of its color and color-pattern, and of the dorsal carina of the prothorax and the hind legs. This specimen belonged to a collection made in Peru by the Russian engineer Ikonikoff which was subsequently deposited in the Lomonosov University in Moscow. In 1970 Dr. Bei-Bienko carried all the types of these species to London for me to study and photograph. Among them there was none belonging to Xyleus. Bruner may have retained this specimen or, if he did send it back, he did not mark it as type. In the said 1910 paper, Bruner states that the species will later be given a complete description in a publication of the Carnegie Museum. This description occurs in his paper of 1911. But Bruner states there that the type-series was collected by HH. Smith In “Chapada, Brazil”. [Chapada dos Guimarães in the State of Mato Grosso]. Since the Peruvian “type” has not been found while the Brazilian series (originally in the Carnegie Museum) is in PHIL., these specimens, marked as types by Bruner and on which his description is based are here considered as the type-series of the species.

    In the light of the present revision, several facts become evident. The specimens in the type-series of D. strigatus, (and also the type of D. schulzi) belong to the taxon previously described by Giglio-Tos as Tropidonotus modestus. The specimen from Peru mentioned as type of the species in the 1910 paper must have been certainly a different species, because X. modestus can hardly be expected to occur there. The characters given in Bruner's description of D. strigatus are not adequate to define the species. Some of them are common to several species of the genus. Others, such as the colors and color pattern, are to be found rather frequently in specimens of X. modestus. This latter species is common in the region of Chapada dos Guimarães. My study of other specimens identified by Bruner from the Carnegie Museum collection shows also that later he come to consider most of the specimens from this place as belonging to X. d. angulatus. This is a species from Northeastern Brasil, superficially similar to X. modestus, that does not occur in the region where the latter is found.

    Specimens examined.—110, from the following localities. BRASIL. State of Rondonia: Colorado do Oeste. State Mato Grosso: Caran-dazinho; Chapada dos Guimarães. State Mato Grosso do Sul: Descalvados on Rio Paraguay; Urucum; Corumbá; 32 km WNW of Aquidauana; Capim Verde; Corginho. BOLIVIA. Depto Santa Cruz: Prov. Andres Ibañez; Sta Cruz de la Sierra, Rio Piray; Cordillera Tarenda S. of Charagua. Depto Tarija: Taringuiti, 35 km by road SE of Villa Montes. PARAGUAY. Chaco: Prov. Boqueron: Cerro León. Depto Concepción: Horqueta. Depto Amambay: Cerro Corá. Depto Paraguarí: Paraguarí; Sapucay. ARGENTINA. Prov. Jujuy: City of Jujuy; San Juancito; San Pedro. Prov. Salta: Salta Forestal [35 km of J.V.González]; Depto Orán, Chaguaral; Itiyuco [8 km. of Pocitos]; Urundel; M. del Tingo; Tartagal; Rio las Piedras; Aguaray; Rio Bermejo; km 69 Cafayate to Salta [1800 m.alt]; 15–20 km E. of Salta [370 m-alt.]; Embarcación. Prov. Formosa: Formosa; Prov. Chaco: Puerto Tirol; Charata; Resistencia. Prov. Catamarca: Depto El Alto, El Unquillo; 10–14 km S. of San Isidro; 20 km SW of City of Catamarca [1300 m-alt.]; 8 km NW of City of Catamarca [900 m-alt.]. Prov. Tucumán: San Miguel de Tucumán [460 m-alt.]; Vipos; Dpto. Cruz Alta, La Soledad, Cañete; Reserva Forestal Benjamín Paz; Dpto. Burruyacú, El Bachi [400 m-alt., bosque chaqueño]; La Rinconada; Ticucho; 30 km N of Tucumán, 10 km E of Tapia [900 m-alt.]; Tapia. Prov. Santiago del Estero: La Banda; Beltrán; 10–15 km SE. of Rio Hondo. Prov. Corrientes: Corrientes. Prov. La Rioja: La Rioja; Prov. Córdoba: Cerro Colorado, Tulumba; Anisacate; Calamuchita-Almafuerte. Prov. San Luis: Las Rosadas. The specimens mentioned above in ANN ARBOR, LA PLATA, MONTEVIDEO, PHIL., RIO DE JANEIRO, TUCUMAN.

    Xyleus pirapora n. sp. (Figs 21, 22, 26, 27, 45, Table 16)

    Holotype.— Male from BRASIL, State of Minas Gerais, Pirapora, Nov 1977, (C.A.C. Seabra, O. Roppa, M.A. Monné) RIO DE JANEIRO. Paratypes: Same data as holotype, 7 ♂, 1 ♀. RIO DE JANEIRO, PARIS. 1 ♀, State of Minas Gerais [no additional data] PHIL.

    Etymology.— A geographical name, from the locality where most known specimens of this species were collected. Originally a word meaning “a place abundant in fish” in the language Tupi-Guarani (Irmão José Gregório 1980:1059)

    Xyleus regularis (Bruner 1905) (Figs 13, 14, 15, 20, 45, Table 12)

  • Tropinotus regularis Bruner 1905: 214, 1906: 647 (descr. of female). Rehn 1905: 38.

  • (distr.), 1907: 173 (intraspecific variation, distr.). Liebermann 1955: 335 (distr. Brasil).

  • Diedronotus regularis; Kirby 1910: 361. Bruner 1911: 52 (distr.). Rehn 1918a: 200 (distr.). Muma 1952: 8 (type-series in Lincoln, Nebraska).

  • Xyleus regularis; Rehn & Grant 1959: 250 (phallic complex figured).

  • Xyleus parvus (Bolivar 1909) n. comb. n. syn

  • Diedronotus parvus Bolivar 1909: 343.

  • Type-series.— Of T. regularis. There are specimens marked as “Types” in NEBRASKA and WASH. However, a male in NEBRASKA, whose measurements exactly agree with the ones given by Bruner in his description of the species, is here considered to be the hololectotype. It is labeled “Tropinotus regularis Bruner, type, Sapucay, Paraguay, Nov”. There is also a female labeled “Sapucay, Paraguay, W.T. Foster, Nov.” The specimens in WASH. are also marked as types. They are labeled “Sapucay, Paraguay, W.T. Foster, 174, March” “Type #9720 USNM”. Type of D. parvus, a male labeled “Paraguay, C° [camino] a Jansen” “Diedronotus parvus Bol.” in MADRID. In Bolivar's description it is implied that male and female were examined, but only the above male was found. Measurements, by some typographical error, are lacking from the original description. Apparently the measurements of the male body, pronotum, tegmina and hind femur should have been given, but the corresponding figures are missing from the text. It is stated in the description that it is “the smaller species known, its tegmina not surpassing the middle of the body” (meaning the abdomen?). The male type in MADRID, however, has tegmina much longer than the abdomen, slightly surpassing the end of the hind femora. In his publication Bolivar gives “Paraguay” as the origin of this insect. Its label reads “Camino a Jansen.” According to the label of the type of Diedronotus amabilis Bolivar, described in the same paper, that reads “Sapucay, C° a Jansen” the latter refers to some place near Sapucay. Bolivar's type in MADRID has not been dissected to examine its phallic complex. It is very similar to the present species and also to X. guarani. However, the presence of a conspicuous white band between C and Sc on the tegmina, found in every male specimen of the present species and generally absent from those of X. guarani, points to its being a specimen of X. regularis. The types of both these species were also collected in Sapucay, Paraguay. Since the latter names are both older than parvus, it is of no consequence whether it is identical with guarani or regularis. The presence in Sapucay of a third cryptic species besides regularis and guarani does not seem probable.

    Specimens examined.— BRASIL. State of Goias: 1 ♂, Vianopolis, Ponte Funda, Jan 1981 (N. Tangerini) RIO DE JANEIRO. State of Minas Gerais; 1 ♂, Gouveia, Nov 1977 (C.A.C. Seabra, O. Roppa, P. Magno) RIO DE JANEIRO. State of São Paulo; 1 ♂, btw. Rio Claro and San Carlos, 1989 (A. Mesa) RIO CLARO. PARAGUAY. Depto Paraguarí; 2 ♂ ♂, Sapucay, Mar 1905 (Foster) PHIL. The following females have been identified as X. regularis on rather slight evidence, derived from the shape of the subgenital plate and the length of the fastigium. Otherwise, they seem identical with females of X. guarani. BRASIL. State of Goias: 1 ♀, Mineiros, Feb 1975 (O. Roppa, B. Silva) RIO DE JANEIRO. State of São Paulo: 1 ♀, Buritizal, Faz. Burití, Feb 1964, (H.M. Canter) RIO DE JANEIRO. PARAGUAY. Depto Caaguazú; 1 ♀, Caaguazú, Mar 1965 (C.S. Carbonell, A. Mesa, M.A. Monné) MONTEVIDEO.

    Xyleus tuberculatus (Palissot de Beauvois 1817) n. comb. Nomen dubium, nomen oblitum

  • Acridium tuberculatum Palissot de Beauvois 1817: 145, pl. 4 Fig. 1.

  • Diedronotus tuberculatum; Kirby 1910: 360 (as a synonym of D. discoideus).

  • Holotype.— lost.

    Palissot attributes this species to Fabricius [Gryllus tuberculatus Fab.] but this authorship is denied by Kirby. Patria: USA, according to Palissot. The action of Kirby of making Palissot's name (1817) a junior synonym of Serville's (1831) T. discoideus does not follow the law of priority.

    Fig. 1.

    Genera Colpolopha, Prionolopha, Xyleus, males (species as indicated). a, head and prothorax, lateral; b, head and prothorax, dorsal; c, prosternal tubercle, lateral; d, prosternal tubercle, ventral; e, end of tegmen, lateral; f, left hind femur, lateral; g, genicular lobe of left hind femur; h, end of abdomen, lateral; i, fastigium, dorsal.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f01.gif

    Fig. 2.

    Colpolopha obsoleta and Prionolopha serrata (as indicated). a, phallic complex without epiphallus, lateral, b, cingulum and apical endophallic valves, lateral; c, endophallus, lateral; d, phallic complex without epiphallus, dorsal; e, same with-out cingulum, dorsal; f, epiphallus, dorsal; g, same, frontal.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f02.gif

    Fig. 3.

    Xyleus discoideus discoideus, phallic complex. a, phallic complex without epiphallus, lateral, b, same without lateral plates, lateral; c, same without cingulum; d, phallic complex without epiphallus, dorsal; e, same without cingulum, dorsal; f, whole complex, ventral; g, epiphallus, dorsal; h, same, frontal; i, cingulum, dorsal.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f03.gif

    Fig. 4.

    Tegmen and hind wing (right) of Xyleus d. discoideus. Color pattern of the wing is similar in all species of the genus. The remigium and the band along the margin of the vannum are of a color that usually varies between chestnut and russet. The basal part of the vannum is pale chrome orange (but in different species may vary between flame scarlet and spectrum orange). In the anterior part of the vannum, between A1 and A2 is a series of arched serrulated veinlets that act as a scraper during stridulation. Right behind them, between V2 and V3, a wide hyaline area that must radiate sound during stridulation.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f04.gif

    Fig. 5.

    Discoideus group. Males (species as indicated). a, head and prothorax, lateral; b, head and prothorax, dorsal; c, prosternal tubercle, lateral; d, prosternal tubercle, ventral; e, end of left tegmen, lateral.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f05.gif

    Fig. 6.

    Apical endophallic valves in the Discoideus group (species as indicated). a, dorsal; b, lateral; c, caudal.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f06.gif

    Fig. 7.

    Xyleus discoideus discoideus (Serville). Habitus. Male specimen from Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Floresta de Tijuca. Length 43 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f07.gif

    Fig. 8.

    Xyleus discoideus angulatus (Stål). Habitus. Female specimen from Brasil, Pernambuco, Recife. Length 43 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f08.gif

    Fig. 9.

    Xyleus discoideus angulatus (Stål). Habitus. Female last-instar nymph from Brasil, Pernambuco, Igaraçu. Length 28 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f09.gif

    Fig. 10.

    Xyleus discoideus venezuelae n. ssp. Habitus. Male specimen from Venezuela, Falcon, Curimagua. Length 33 mm. Scale line 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f10.gif

    Fig. 11.

    Xyleus discoideus rosulentus (Stål). Habitus. Male specimen from Colombia, Meta, near Puerto López. Length 42 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f11.gif

    Fig. 12.

    Xyleus discoideus mexicanus (Bruner). Habitus. Male specimen from Mexico, Quintana Roo, Nuevo X-Can. Length 37 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f12.gif

    Fig. 13.

    Cingulum in Discoideus and Laevipes groups (species as indicated). a, lateral views; b, dorsal views.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f13.gif

    Fig. 14.

    Laevipes group. Males (species as indicated). a, head and prothorax, lateral; b, head and prothorax, dorsal; c, prosternal tubercle, lateral; d, prosternal tubercle, ventral; e, end of left tegmen, lateral.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f14.gif

    Fig. 15.

    Apical endophallic valves in the Laevipes group (species as indicated). a, dorsal; b, lateral; c, caudal.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f15.gif

    Fig. 16.

    Xyleus laevipes (Stål). Habitus. Female specimen from Uruguay, Rio Negro, Rincón de Fray Bentos. Length 55 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f16.gif

    Fig. 17.

    Xyleus modestus (Giglio Tos). Habitus. Male specimen from Brasil, Mato Grosso, Corumbá. Length 36 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f17.gif

    Fig. 18.

    Xyleus andinus n. sp. Habitus. Male paratype from Bolivia, Alto Beni, Palos Blancos. Length 42 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f18.gif

    Fig. 19.

    Xyleus goias n. sp. Habitus. Male paratype from Brasil, Goias, Minaçu. Length 37 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f19.gif

    Fig. 20.

    Xyleus regularis (Bruner). Habitus. Male specimen from Paraguay, Paraguarí, Sapucay. Length 34 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f20.gif

    Fig. 21.

    Attenuatus group. Males (species as indicated). a, head and prothorax, lateral; b, head and prothorax, dorsal; c, prosternal tubercle, lateral; d, prosternal tubercle, ventral; e, end of left tegmen, lateral.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f21.gif

    Fig. 22.

    Apical endophallic valves in the Attenuatus group (species as indicated). a, dorsal; b, lateral; c, caudal.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f22.gif

    Fig. 23.

    Xyleus attenuatus (Rehn) Habitus. Male specimen from Brasil, Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães. Length 39 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f23.gif

    Fig. 24.

    Xyleus araguaia n. sp. Habitus. Male paratype from Brasil, Mato Grosso, 30 km N of Alto Araguaia. Length 41 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f24.gif

    Fig. 25.

    Xyleus gracilis (Bruner). Habitus. Male specimen from Brasil, São Paulo, Campos de Jordão. Length 33 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f25.gif

    Fig. 26.

    Xyleus pirapora n. sp. Habitus. Male paratype from Brasil, Minas Gerais, Pirapora. Length 36 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f26.gif

    Fig. 27.

    Cingulum in Attenuatus and Insignis groups (species as indicated). a, lateral views; b, dorsal views.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f27.gif

    Fig. 28.

    Insignis group. Males (species as indicated). a, head and prothorax, lateral; b, head and prothorax, dorsal; c, prosternal tubercle, lateral; d, prosternal tubercle, ventral; e, end of left tegmen, lateral.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f28.gif

    Fig. 29.

    Apical endophallic valves in Insignis group (species as indicated). a, dorsal; b, lateral; c, caudal.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f29.gif

    Fig. 30.

    Xyleus insignis (Giglio Tos). Habitus. Male specimen from Argentina, Chaco, Arroyo Palometa. Length 40 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f30.gif

    Fig. 31.

    Xyleus aimara n. sp. Habitus. Male holotype from Bolivia, Sucre. Length 34 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f31.gif

    Fig. 32.

    Xyleus lineatus (Bruner). Habitus. Male specimen from Brasil, São Paulo, Itirapina. Length 38 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f32.gif

    Fig. 33.

    Xyleus guarani (Rehn). Habitus. Male specimen from Brasil, Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães. Length 33 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f33.gif

    Fig. 34.

    Xyleus guarani (Rehn). Habitus. Female specimen from Brasil, São Paulo, Franca. Length 43 mm. Scale 5 mm.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f34.gif

    Fig. 35.

    Xyleus camposi (Bolivar). Habitus. Female holotype from Ecuador, Guayas, Posorja. Length 37 mm. Scale 5 mm. Drawing based on photographs. Minor details may be inaccurate.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f35.gif

    Fig. 36.

    Genus Xyleus, known distribution according to the specimens examined for this work. Eq, Equator. TCa, Tropic of Capricorn. TCr, Tropic of Cancer.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f36.gif

    Fig. 37.

    Xyleus discoideus discoideus and Xyleus gracilis. Localities of collection of specimens examined. In Uruguay the species is distributed over all the territory.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f37.gif

    Fig. 38.

    Xyleus discoideus angulatus, localities of collection of specimens examined. Dash-lines in this figure mark the limits of Brasilian states.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f38.gif

    Fig. 39.

    Xyleus discoideus venezuelae, localities of specimens examined.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f39.gif

    Fig. 40.

    Xyleus discoideus rosulentus and Xyleus camposi: localities of specimens examined. The only locality known for X. camposi is in Ecuador, near Guayaquil.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f40.gif

    Fig. 41.

    Xyleus discoideus mexicanus, localities of collection of specimens examined.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f41.gif

    Fig. 42.

    Xyleus laevipes, localities of collection of specimens examined.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f42.gif

    Fig. 43.

    Xyleus andinus and Xyleus laufferi, localities of collection of specimens examined. The only locality registered for X. laufferi is near the upper left corner of the map.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f43.gif

    Fig. 44.

    Xyleus aimara, X. araguaia, X. modestus and X. insignis: localities of specimens examined. The first 2 species each known only from a single locality (on the upper third of the map).

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f44.gif

    Fig. 45.

    Xyleus attenuatus, X. goias, X. lineatus, X. pirapora, X. guarani and X. regularis localities of collection of specimens examined. In the case of X. attenuatus, there is also registered one locality in coastal Sergipe, and in the case of X. goias, one (not found in maps) in the state of Amapá, both far from the area represented in the map. The locality in the state of Amapá seems doubtful for X. goias, and may be due to mislabeling of the specimen. For X. guarani and X. regularis, while males were identified without doubt, females, that have been marked as such, represent only tentative identifications (see text).

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f45.gif

    Fig. 46.

    Xyleus, distribution of the 10 best-known species (as indicated). Species known only from a few specimens have not been included here (see preceding maps). Limits of the distribution of each species are approximate. Further collecting will probably enlarge the area of some of these species.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f46.gif

    Fig. 47.

    Xyleus, measurements taken (as indicated in corresponding tables). A, length from frons or tip of fastigium to end of tegmen; B, length from frons to end of abdomen; C, length of fastigium; D, length of prozona; E, length of metazona; F, length of prothorax; G, length of tegmen; H, length of hind femur; I, length of hind tibia; J, greater diameter of eye; K, smaller diameter of eye; L, height of pronotal crest, M, interocular distance; N, maximum width of fastigium; O, width of pronotal metazona; P, maximum width of pronotum, Q, width of head at eyes; R, maximum width of hind femur.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-f47.gif

    APPENDIX II. Approximate coordinates of the localities mentioned in the text

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta201.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta202.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta203.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta204.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta205.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta206.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta207.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta208.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta209.gif

    Cont.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-ta210.gif

    Table 1.

    Diagnostic features distinguishing Xyleus from other related genera.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t01.gif

    Table 2.

    Principal diagnostic characters of species groups of Xyleus.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t02.gif

    APPENDIX III. Tables of measurements. Table 3. Xyleus discoideus discoideus (Serville), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female. BRASIL. Rio de Janeiro, Floresta de Tijuca, 800, 801, 809: Espirito Santo, Cariacica, 802: Minas Gerais, Barbacena, 803: Rio Grande do Sul, Ronda Alta, 806: Rio de Janeiro, Represa Tres Rios, 810: Espirito Santo, Jaguare, 811: Minas Gerais, Carangola, 812: Rio Grande do Sul, Nonoai, 815. ARGENTINA. Misiones, Iguazú, 804, 813: Entre Rios, Pronunciamiento, 805, 814. PARAGUAY. Sapucay, 807, 816. URUGUAY. Tacuarembó, Arroyo Malo, 808; Florida, Casupá, 817.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t03.gif

    Table 4.

    Xyleus discoideus angulatus (Stål), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female. BRASIL. Bahia, Feira de Santana, 689, 697; Bahia, Cruz das Almas, 690; Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 691; Piaui, Marcolandia, 693, 701; Paraiba, Brandão, 694; Pernambuco, Recife, 695; Pernambuco, Caruaru, 696; Bahia, Jequie, 698; Ceara, Crato, 699; Bahia, Jaguarari, 700; Pernambuco, Mimoso, 702; Pernambuco, Gurjau, 703; Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, 704.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t04.gif

    Table 5.

    Xyleus discoideus venezuelae n. ssp., measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: p, paratype. VENEZUELA. Falcon, Curimagua, holotype: Merida, El Chivo, 705: Zulia, Sierra Perija, 706: Carabobo, Palmichal, 707: Carabobo, Mariara, 708: Tachira, Ruiz Pineda, 709: Miranda, Est. Exp. Rio Negro, 710: Aragua, El Limón, 711: Bolivar, Rio Paragua, 712: Aragua, Cagua, 713: Portuguesa, Guaviare, 714, 715: Bolivar, El Pao, 716: Bolivar, Ciudad Bolivar, 717: Aragua, 718. BRASIL. Roraima, Rio Surumu, 721, 722.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t05.gif

    Table 6.

    Xyleus discoideus rosulentus (Stål), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: a, allotype: pg, measurements taken from photograph. COLOMBIA. Aracataca, 675, 676, 683; Tucurinca, 678; Puerto López, 680, 686; Rio Frio, 621, 682, 685; Mamatoco, 818; Las Mesitas, 819; Las Pavas, 684; Villavicencio, 687.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t06.gif

    Table 7.

    Xyleus discoideus mexicanus (Bruner), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female. MEXICO. Oaxaca, Jalapa del Marques, 786: Oaxaca, Almolayas, 787, 793: Yucatan, Izamaln, 788: Quintana Roo, Nuevo X-Can, 789, 796: Michoacan, Ixtapa-Altamirano Road, 794: Yucatan, Tunkas, 795. NICARAGUA. Managua, 790, 797: Rivas Javillo, 798. COSTA RICA. Guanacaste, 792, 799.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t07.gif

    Table 8.

    Xyleus laevipes (Stål), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female. ARGENTINA. Chaco, Resistencia, 650: Salta, Tartagal, 652: Chaco, Arroyo Palometa, 653: Santa Fe, Arocena, 654: Santa Fe, Carcarañá, 656: Salta, San Lorenzo, 661. URUGUAY. Tacuarembó, Arroyo Laureles, 651: Rivera, Sierra de la Aurora, 655, 658: Rio Negro, Rincón de Fray Bentos, 659: Artigas, Arroyo Invernada, 660. PARAGUAY. Cordillera, Itacurubí, 662. BRASIL. São Paulo, Itirapina, 657.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t08.gif

    Table 9.

    Xyleus modestus (Giglio-Tos), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female. ARGENTINA. Chaco, Resistencia, 723: Tucuman, Vipos, 726, 737: Salta, S. Forestal, 727: Salta, Aguaray, 732: Chaco, Arroyo Palometa, 733: Salta, Urundel, 738: Catamarca, 20 km S of Catamarca,739: Santiago del Estero, SE of Rio Hondo, 742. BRASIL. Rondonia, Ouro Preto do Oeste, 724: Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumba, 728, 743: Mato Grosso, Corginho, 729: Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, 730, 731: Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana, 734. PARAGUAY. Paraguarí, Sapucay, 725, 736: Chaco, Cerro León, 740. BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, Naranjales, 741.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t09.gif

    Table 10.

    Xyleus andinus n. sp., measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M-R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: p, paratype. BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz, Prov. Sara, 773, 780, 783: Santa Cruz, Naranjales, 775, 781: Santa Cruz, 776: Alto Beni, Palos Blancos, 777: Santa Cruz, Buena Vista, 782. PERU. Puerto Jessup, 778: Cusco, La Convención, Kiteni, 779: Satipo, 784: Chanchamayo, 785.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t10.gif

    Table 11.

    Xyleus goias n. sp., measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. - L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: p, paratype. BRASIL. Goias, Minaçu, 763–768, 770, 771: Goias, Curvelo, 769: Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, 772.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t11.gif

    Table 12.

    Xyleus regularis (Bruner), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype. ?, identity doubtful, regularis or guarani. PARAGUAY. Sapucay, holotype, 612, 613: Caaguazú, 616. BRASIL. Goias, Ponte Funda, 610: Minas Gerais, Gouveia, 611: São Paulo, Rio Claro-Sao Carlos, 614: São Paulo, Buritizal, 620: Goias, Mineiros, 622.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t12.gif

    Table 13.

    Xyleus attenuatus (Rehn), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: pg, measurements taken from photograph. BRASIL. Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, holotype, 635–643: Goias, S. of Cristalina, 644: Sergipe, Areia Branca, 645.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t13.gif

    Table 14.

    Xyleus araguaya n. sp, measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: p, paratype. BRASIL. Mato Grosso, 30 km NW of Alto Araguaya.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t14.gif

    Table 15.

    Xyleus gracilis (Bruner), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype. BRASIL. São Paulo, São Paulo, holotype: São Paulo, Piracicaba, 624: São Paulo, Campos de Jordão, 625: Rio Grande do Sul, Santo Augusto, 626, 634: Goias, Jatai, 627: Minas Gerais, Poços de Caldas, 628, 631, 632, 633: São Paulo, Itirapina, 629: Rio Grande do Sul, Ronda Alta, 630.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t15.gif

    Table 16.

    Xyleus pirapora n. sp, measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: p, paratype. BRASIL. Minas Gerais, Pirapora, 754–762.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t16.gif

    Table 17.

    Xyleus laufferi (Bolivar), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. - L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype.: pg, measurements taken from photograph. PERU, Cumbase, holotype.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t17.gif

    Table 18.

    Xyleus insignis (Giglio-Tos), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). SA - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. - L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: pg, measurements taken from photograph. ARGENTINA. Chaco, Resistencia, 664, 669: Chaco. Arroyo Palometa, 670: Córdoba, 671, 674: Salta, S. of General Güemes, 672: La Rioja, Mascasin, 668, 673: Salta, Santa Rosa, holotype: Corrientes, Chavarría, 663: Catamarca, Dique Cayagasta, 665: Santiago del Estero, NE of La Banda, 666: Salta, Tala, 667.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t18.gif

    Table 19.

    Xyleus aimara n. sp., measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. - L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype. BOLIVIA. Chuquisaca, Sucre, holotype.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t19.gif

    Table 20.

    Xyleus lineatus (Bruner), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. - L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female. BRASIL. Mato Grosso, BR 364, km 616, 744: Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, 746: Goias, Municipio Formosa, 748: Mato Grosso do Sul, 100 km N. of Campo Grande, 749: São Paulo, Itirapina, 750, 751: Goias, Jatai, 753: Minas Gerais (no locality), 754. PARAGUAY. Paraguarí, Sapucay, 745, 752.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t20.gif

    Table 21.

    Xyleus guarani (Rehn), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. - L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype. ?, identity doubtful, guarani or regularis. PARAGUAY. Sapucay, holotype, 618, 621: Ihú, 623. BRASIL. Mato Grosso, BR 364, km 605, 605: São Paulo, Piraçununga, 606, Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, 608: Mato Grosso, Gaucho, 609: Goias, 20 km S of Brasilia, 617: São Paulo, Franca, 619. BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz, Prov. Sara, 607.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t21.gif

    Table 22.

    Xyleus camposi (Bolivar), measurements in tenths of a mm (Fig. 47). A - K, lengths: A, frons to end of tegmen: B, frons to end of abdomen: C, fastigium: D, prozona: E, metazona: F, pronotum: G, tegmen: H, hind femur: I, hind tibia: J, eye, max.: K, eye, min. - L, height of pronotal crest. M - R, widths: M, interocular: N, fastigium: O, pronotum, max.: P, prothorax, max.: Q, head at eyes: R, hind femur. - S, number of spines on hind tibiae. Sx, sex. #, specimen number: m, male: f, female: h, holotype: pg, measurements taken from photograph. fh 1, female holotype of Paralcamenes camposi. fh 2, female holotype of Colpolopha camposi. Both from ECUADOR, Prov. Guayas, Posorja.

    i1082-6467-13-1-63-t22.gif
    Carlos S. Carbonell "The genus Xyleus (Acridoidea, Romaleidae, Romaleinae)," Journal of Orthoptera Research 13(1), 63-133, (1 June 2004). https://doi.org/10.1665/1082-6467(2004)013[0063:TGXGAR]2.0.CO;2
    Published: 1 June 2004
    JOURNAL ARTICLE
    71 PAGES


    SHARE
    ARTICLE IMPACT
    Back to Top