Open Access
Translator Disclaimer
1 June 2004 Molecular Differentiation of Large Species of Fruit-Eating Bats (Artibeus) and Phylogenetic Relationships Based on the Cytochrome b Gene
Burton K. Lim, Mark D. Engstrom, Thomas E. Lee Jr., John C. Patton, John W. Bickham
Author Affiliations +

We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of all eleven currently recognized species of large Artibeus using the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. The topology from a maximum parsimony analysis included: (1) A. obscurus and A. planirostris as sister species with successively basal lineages of (2) A. amplus, (3) a clade with A. lituratus and A. intermedius, (4) A. jamaicensis, (5) a clade of A. inopinatus sister to A. hirsutus and A. fraterculus, (6) A. fimbriatus, and (7) the most basal lineage of A. concolor. The individual species were monophyletic and well supported by bootstrap and decay values. The monophyletic clade of ((((obscurus planirostris) amplus) (lituratus intermedius)) jamaicensis) was also highly supported, although some of the interspecific relationships were less so. Contrary to previous hypotheses of species limits based on a presumed intergradation in body size, A. jamaicensis and A. planirostris do not form a monophyletic group, refuting their conspecificity and supporting an earlier study concluding that these two taxa represent separate morphological populations. An analysis with A. jamaicensis and A. planirostris constrained as sister-taxa resulted in a tree 8 steps longer. In addition, the low genetic pair-wise difference between A. lituratus and A. intermedius (2.8% with Kimura-2 parameters) warrants closer examination of their species limits.



R. D. Bradley , and R. J. Baker . 2001. A test of the genetic species concept: cytochrome-b sequences and mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 82: 960–973. Google Scholar


L. M. Daválos , and S.A. Jansa . 2004. Phylogeny of Lonchophylini (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Journal of Mammalogy, 85: 404–113. Google Scholar


W. B. Davis 1984. Review of the large fruit-eating bats of the Artibeuslituratus’ complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Middle America. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 93: 1–16. Google Scholar


A. D. Ditchfield 2000. The comparative phylogeography of Neotropical mammals: patterns of intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation among bats contrasted to nonvolant small mammals. Molecular Ecology, 9: 1307–1318. Google Scholar


J. A. Guerrero , E. De Luna , and C. Sánchez-Hernández . 2003. Morphometrics in the quantification of character state identity for the assessment of primary homology: an analysis of character variation of the genus Artibeus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 80: 45–55. Google Scholar


C. O. Handley Jr . 1987. New species of mammals from northern South America: fruit-eating bats, genus Artibeus Leach. Pp. 163–172, in Studies in Neotropical mammalogy: essays in honor of Philip Hershkovitz ( B. D. Patterson and R. M. Timm , eds.). Fieldiana: Zoology (NS), 39: 1–506. Google Scholar


P. Hershkovitz 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia, preliminary report no. 5: bats (Chiroptera). Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 99: 429–154. Google Scholar


T. E. Lee Jr. , B. K. Lim , and J. D. Hanson . 2000. Noteworthy records of mammals from the Orinoco River drainage of Venezuela. The Texas Journal of Science, 52: 264–266. Google Scholar


B. K. Lim 1997. Morphometric differentiation and species status of the allopatric fruit-eating bats Artibeus jamaicensis and A. planirostris in Venezuela. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environments, 32: 65–71. Google Scholar


B. K. Lim , and D. E. Wilson . 1993. Taxonomic status of Artibeus amplus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in northern South America. Journal of Mammalogy, 74: 763–768. Google Scholar


B. K. Lim , H. H. Genoways , and M. D. Engstrom . 2003. Results of the Alcoa Foundation-Suriname expeditions. XII. First record of the giant fruit-eating bat, Artibeus amplus, (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Suriname with a review of the species. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 72: 99–107. Google Scholar


T. Maniatis , F. E. Fritsch , and J. Sambrook . 1982. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Google Scholar


S. A. Marques-Aguiar 1994. A systematic review of the large species of Artibeus Leach, 1821 (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with some phylogenetic inferences. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Zoologia, 10: 3–83. Google Scholar


G., J. Ochoa , H. J. Sánchez , M. Bevilacqua , and R. Rivero . 1988. Inventorio de los mamíferos de la Reserva Forestal de Ticoporo y la Serrania de Los Pijiguaos, Venezuela. Acta Científica Venezolana, 39: 269–280. Google Scholar


R. D. Owen 1987. Phylogenetic analysis of the bat subfamily Stenodermatinae (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 26: 1–65. Google Scholar


B. D. Patterson , V. Pacheco , and M. V. Ashley . 1992. On the origins of the western slope region of endemism: systematics of fig-eating bats, genus Artibeus. Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima), 21: 189–205. Google Scholar


D. E. Pumo , P. S. Finamore , W. R. Franek , C. J. Phillips , S. Tarzami , and D. Balzarano . 1998. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Neotropical fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and a new hypothesis of the relationships of bats to other eutherian mammals. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 47: 709–717. Google Scholar


N. B. Simmons In press. Chiroptera. In Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd edition ( D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder , eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar


N. B. Simmons , and R. S. Voss . 1998. The mammals of Paracou, French Guiana: a Neotropical lowland rainforest fauna, part 1, bats. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 237: 1–219. Google Scholar


D. L. Swofford , 2001. PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods). Version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Google Scholar


R. A. Van Den Bussche , J. L. Hudgeons , and R. J. Baker . 1998. Phylogenetic accuracy, stability, and congruence: relationships within and among the New World bat genera Artibeus, Dermanura, and Koopmania. Pp. 43–58, in Bat biology and conservation ( T. H. Kunz and P. A. Racey , eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., xiv + 365 pp. Google Scholar


A. L. Wetterer , M. V. Rockman , and N. B. Simmons . 2000. Phylogeny of phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera): data from diverse morphological systems, sex chromosomes, and restriction sites. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 248: 1–200. Google Scholar
© Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS
Burton K. Lim, Mark D. Engstrom, Thomas E. Lee Jr., John C. Patton, and John W. Bickham "Molecular Differentiation of Large Species of Fruit-Eating Bats (Artibeus) and Phylogenetic Relationships Based on the Cytochrome b Gene," Acta Chiropterologica 6(1), 1-12, (1 June 2004).
Received: 4 December 2003; Accepted: 1 May 2004; Published: 1 June 2004

cytochrome b
Get copyright permission
Back to Top