Translator Disclaimer
1 June 2004 Genetic Similarity Amongst Phenotypically Diverse Little Free-Tailed Bats, Chaerephon pumilus
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

The African molossid Chaerephon pumilus shows extensive variation in colour, size and echolocation across its wide distributional range with a light-winged form in north-eastern Africa and a dark form in southern Africa. There is also much variation in supposedly diagnostic characters (e.g., degree of palatial emargination) amongst the dark form of this species in southern Africa. These differences suggest that there may be cryptic species within C. pumilus. We used phylogenetic and phenetic analyses of sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene of a number of C. pumilus individuals to investigate the status of the light and dark-winged forms of this species and to evaluate the possibility of cryptic species within the dark-winged form of C. pumilus in southern Africa. We evaluated species status by comparing the level of sequence divergence amongst C. pumilus with the level of sequence divergence between known species in the genus. These included C. ansorgei, C. chapini, C. nigeriae and C. jobensis. Intrageneric sequence divergences among the Chaerephon spp. included here ranged from 6.51 to 11.18%, whereas the average sequence divergence between the light and dark forms was 0.9%. This suggests that these two forms are not distinct species. Individuals of the dark form of C. pumilus were genetically indistinguishable from each other having the same cytochrome b haplotype. We thus found no evidence of cryptic species in southern African C. pumilus.

LITERATURE CITED

  1. H. D. J. N. Aldridge , and I. L. Rautenbach . 1987. Morphology, echolocation and resource partitioning in insectivorous bats. Journal of Animal Ecology, 56: 763–778. Google Scholar
  2. F. Aspetsberger , D. Brandsen , and D. S. Jacobs . 2003. Geographical variation in the morphology, echolocation and diet of the little free-tailed bat, Chaerophon pumilus (Molossidae). African Zoology, 38: 245–254. Google Scholar
  3. E. M. Barrait , R. Deaville , T. M. Burland , M. W. Bruford , G. Jones , P. A. Racey , and R. K. Wayne . 1997. DNA answers the call of pipistrelle bat species. Nature, 387: 138–139. Google Scholar
  4. B. J. Betts 1998. Effects of interindividual variation in echolocation calls on identification of big brown and silver-haired bats. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62: 1003–1010. Google Scholar
  5. W. Bogdanowicz 1990. Geographic variation and taxonomy of Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentoni, in Europe. Journal of Mammalogy, 71: 205–218. Google Scholar
  6. S. Bouchard 1998. Chaerephon pumilus. Mammalian Species, 547: 1–6. Google Scholar
  7. V. Brack Jr ., and J. O. Whitaker Jr . 2001. Foods of the northern myotis, Myotis septentrionalis, from Missouri and Indiana, with notes on foraging. Acta Chiropterologica, 3: 203–210. Google Scholar
  8. R. D. Bradley , and R. J. Baker . 2001. A test of the genetic species concept: cytochrome-b sequences and mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 82: 960–973. Google Scholar
  9. E. R. Buchler 1980. The development of flight, foraging, and echolocation in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 6: 211–218. Google Scholar
  10. F. L. Clark , and A. C. Smart . 1991. The diet of Tadarida (Chaerephon) pumila (Cretzschmar), Molossidae, at Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Journal of African Zoology, 105: 493–196. Google Scholar
  11. A. D. Ditchfield 2000. The comparative phylogeography of Neotropical mammals: Patterns of intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation among bats contrasted to nonvolant small mammals. Molecular Ecology, 9: 1307–1318. Google Scholar
  12. J. Felsenstein 1985. Confidence limits on phytogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution, 39: 783–791. Google Scholar
  13. D. L. Harrison 1958. A note on successive pregnancies in an African bat. Mammalia, 22: 592–595. Google Scholar
  14. R. W. Hayman , and J. E. Hill . 1971. Order Chiroptera. Pp. 1–73, in The mammals of Africa: an identification manual. Part 2 ( J. Meester and H. W. Setzer , eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  15. K.-G Heller , and O. von Helversen . 1989. Resource partitioning of sonar frequency bands in rhinolophoid bats. Oecologia, 80: 178–186. Google Scholar
  16. D. M. Irwin , T. D. Kocher , and A. C. Wilson . 1991. Evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 32: 128–14. Google Scholar
  17. D. S. Jacobs 1996. Morphological divergence in an insular bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus. Functional Ecology, 10: 622–630. Google Scholar
  18. D. S. Jacobs 1999a. Intraspecific variation in wingspan and echolocation call flexibility might explain the use of different habitats by the insectivorous bat, Miniopterus schreibersii (Vespertilionidae: Miniopterinae). Acta Chiropterologica, 1: 93–103. Google Scholar
  19. D. S. Jacobs 19996. The diet of the insectivorous Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) in an open and a cluttered habitat. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77: 1603–1608. Google Scholar
  20. D. S. Jacobs , and M. B. Fenton . 2001. The status of Sauromys petrophilus and Chaerephon pumilus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in the Western Cape province of South Africa. African Zoology, 36: 129–136. Google Scholar
  21. G. C. Johns , and J. C. Avise . 1998. A comparative summary of genetic distances in the vertebrates from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 15: 1481–1490. Google Scholar
  22. G. Jones , and S. M. van Parijs . 1993. Bimodal echolocation in pipistrelle bats: are cryptic species present? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 251: 119–125. Google Scholar
  23. G. Jones , T. Gordon , and J. Nightingale . 1992. Sex and age variation in echolocation calls of the lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros. Mammalia, 56: 189–193. Google Scholar
  24. A. Kiefer , F. Mayer , J. Kosuch , O. von Helversen , and M. Veith . 2002. Conflicting molecular phylogenies of European long-eared bats (Plecotus) can be explained by cryptic diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25: 557–566. Google Scholar
  25. M. Kimura 1980. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16: 111–120 Google Scholar
  26. J. Kingdon 1974. East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa. Volume 2, Part A (Insectivores and bats). Academic Press, London, 340 pp. Google Scholar
  27. K. F. Koopman 1965. Status of forms described or recorded by J. A. Allen in the American Museum Congo Expedition Collection of bats. American Museum Noviates, 2219: 1–34 Google Scholar
  28. K. F. Koopman 1975. Bats of the Sudan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 154: 353–143. Google Scholar
  29. A. J. Marshall , and P. S. Corbet . 1959. The breeding biology of equatorial vertebrates: reproduction of the bat Chaerephon hindei Thomas at latitude 0°26°N. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 132: 607–616. Google Scholar
  30. F. Mayer , and O. von Helversen . 2001a. Sympatric distribution of two cryptic bat species across Europe. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74: 365–374. Google Scholar
  31. F. Mayer , and O. von Helversen . 2001b. Cryptic diversity in European bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B — Biological Sciences, 268: 1825–1832. Google Scholar
  32. A. N. McWilliam 1988. Social organisation of the Bat Tadarida (Chaerephon) pumila (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Ghana, West Africa. Ethology, 77: 115–124. Google Scholar
  33. C. M. Miller-Butterworth , D. S. Jacobs , and E. H. Harley . 2003. Strong population substructure is correlated with morphology and ecology in a migratory bat. Nature, 424: 187–191. Google Scholar
  34. M. Mucedda , A. Kiefer , E. Pidinchedda , and M. Veith . 2002. A new species of long-eared bat (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) from Sardinia (Italy). Acta Chiropterologica, 4: 121–135. Google Scholar
  35. M. K. Obrist 1995. Flexible bat echolocation: the influence of individual, habitat and conspecifics on sonar signal design. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 36: 207–219. Google Scholar
  36. M. Ruedi , and F. Mayer . 2001. Molecular systematics of the genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae) suggests deterministic ecomorphological convergences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 21:436–148. Google Scholar
  37. J. Sambrook , E. F. Fritsch , and T. Maniatis . 1989. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York. Google Scholar
  38. N. Simmons In press. Order Chiroptera. In Mammal species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd edition ( D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder, eds.).  Google Scholar
  39. J. D. Skinner , and R. H. N. Smithers . 1990. The mammals of the southern African subregion. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, xxxii + 771 pp. Google Scholar
  40. A. C. Smart , and F. L. Clark . 1991. The emergence behaviour of Tadarida (Chaerephon) pumila (Cretzchmar), Molossidae, at Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Journal of African Zoology, 105: 497–501. Google Scholar
  41. D. Swofford 2002. PAUP*: Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony (and other methods), version 4.10. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois. Google Scholar
  42. P. J. Taylor 1999. Problems with the identification of southern African Chaerephon (Molossidae), and the possibility of a cryptic species from South Africa and Swaziland. Acta Chiropterologica, 1: 191–200. Google Scholar
  43. E. C. Teeling , O. Madsen , R. A. Van Den Bussche , W. W. De Jong , M. J. Stanhope , and M. S. Springer . 2002. Microbat paraphyly and the convergent evolution of a key innovation in Old World rhinolophoid microbats. PNAS, 99: 1431–1436. Google Scholar
  44. J. D. Thompson , T. J. Gibson , F. Plewniak , F. Jeanmougin , and D. G. Higgins . 1997. The CLUSTAL X windows interface: Flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25: 4876–1882. Google Scholar
  45. O. von Helversen , K.-G Heller , F. Mayer , and A. Nemeth . 2001. Cryptic mammalian species: a new species of whiskered bat (Myotis alcathoe n.sp.) in Europe. Naturwissenschaften, 88: 217–223. Google Scholar
  46. J. O. Whitaker Jr ., and R. E. Mumford . 1978. Food and ectoparasites of bats from Kenya, East Africa. Journal of Mammalogy, 59: 632–634. Google Scholar
© Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS
David S. Jacobs, Geeta N. Eick, Eleanor J. Richardson and Peter J. Taylor "Genetic Similarity Amongst Phenotypically Diverse Little Free-Tailed Bats, Chaerephon pumilus," Acta Chiropterologica 6(1), (1 June 2004). https://doi.org/10.3161/001.006.0102
Received: 19 December 2003; Accepted: 1 April 2004; Published: 1 June 2004
JOURNAL ARTICLE
9 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top