Sanborn, P., Lamontagne, L. and Hendershot, W. 2011. Podzolic soils of Canada : Genesis, distribution, and classification. Can. J. Soil Sci. 91: 843-880. Podzolic soils occupy 14.3% of the Canadian landmass, and occur in two widely separated areas, eastern Canada (northern Ontario, Quebec, Maritimes) and British Columbia, usually under coniferous forest and on non-calcareous parent materials. Broad climatic control of Podzol distribution and properties is evident at the national scale, with higher organic matter concentrations (Ferro-Humic Podzols) in wetter climates, in contrast to Humo-Ferric Podzols predominating in drier boreal forest regions. Humic Podzols are least abundant and are restricted to the wettest landscape positions. International and Canadian research suggests that a more diverse range of processes is involved in podzolization than was envisioned in the 1960s, and proposed mechanisms must account for observed patterns of organic matter distribution and a diverse array of inorganic amorphous constituents in profiles. Taxonomic concepts of Podzolic soils in the Canadian System of Soil Classification have remained consistent since the late 1970s, and the higher-level criteria defining the order and its great groups have proved to be meaningful in new applications, such as delineating soil carbon stocks across Canadian landscapes. Canadian contributions to pedological research on Podzols declined dramatically after 1990, coincident with shifting research priorities in soil science and diminished activity in soil survey.
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