Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact email@example.com with any questions.
An epizootic of sub-acute vibriosis occurred among a population of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) during experimental acclimatization to seawater. The causative organism was identified as Vibrio anguillarum and its characteristics are listed.
Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead or moribund in the United States and Canada and submitted to Patuxent Wildlife Research Center were examined for helminth parasites. Nine genera of helminths were reported which include new host records for Clinostomum complanatum, Neogogatea pandionis, Centrorhynchus sp., Serratospiculum amaculata, Capillaria contorta, and Habronema americanum.
From 1963 to 1972 39% of 251 fawns born in a captive herd of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died with signs attributable to strongyloidosis. At necropsy one typically affected fawn contained 50,000 female Strongyloides in its small intestine. These nematodes and free-living adult females cultured from feces compared morphologically and metrically to S. papillosus. Egg counts on infected fawns varied from 200 to 286,000 eggs per gram of feces. Evidence was obtained that intrauterine transmission of this parasite occurred. The disease was controlled by removing fawns from their mothers shortly after birth and raising them on bottled milk and out of contact with the ground. Fawns were treated with thiabendazole at 6 and at 30-40 days of age and maintained in pens with elevated wooden floors until 8-10 months of age. The original source of the Strongyloides infection in this captive herd and the possible significance of this disease in wild populations of deer are discussed.
We present an analysis of some blood characters in 31 newborn fawns and 79 older white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from free-ranging populations in southern Texas. In the newborn fawns, averages were: Erythrocytes 6.95 1068/mm3, leucocytes 3.6 l03/mm8, hemoglobin 10.1 g/100 ml, sedimentation rate 2.2 mm/hr and hematocrit 29.1%. In the older fawns and adults averages were: Hematocrit 49.5%, serum calcium 5.2 mEq/L, serum sodium 157.6 mEq/L, serum potassium 6.8 mEq/L, BUN 14.4 mg%, total serum protein 6.4 g/100 ml, albumin 3.8 g/100 ml, globulins 2.6 g/100 ml, and albumin/globulin ratio 1.5. These values for fawns and older deer generally fell within the ranges reported in other studies. More data are needed, particularly from free-ranging populations, in order to determine which blood composition characters can be used efficiently to indicate subtle differences in health and condition of deer.
The viruses of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease produced cell associated viremias in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus Virginianus). Highest virus titers were associated with the erythrocytes. The titers of virus in the erythrocyte fraction of blood were consistently higher than those in the leukocyte fraction, although virus persisted in both fractions for approximately the same length of time. All detectable viremia disappeared within 6 to 8 days following the development of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. These antibodies failed to confer protection against challenge with virulent heterologous virus, although the time of death was delayed 3 to 11 days in comparison with control deer.
Microscopic examination of scales from lesions on the ear of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) revealed the presence of fungal structures, gross appearance of which was consistent with the morphology of a dematiaceous mold. Nutrient agar cultures inoculated with such scales yielded Alternaria alternata. No other fungus was seen or isolated. Hyphalike elements were also noted in thin sections of the connective tissue of the ear. These data indicate a subcutaneous infection initiated by Alternaria.
Tissues from two bighorn sheep fetuses and four neonatal bighorn sheep lambs were examined for evidence of natural Protostongylus infection occurring by the transplacental route. Forty-three third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered from the fetal liver of case 1; one L3 from the cotyledons of case 2; 189 L3 from the liver and 46 L3 from the lungs of case 3; 146 La from the liver and 43 L3 from the lungs of case 4; and 133 L3 from the liver and 33 L3 from the lungs of case 5. Fifty-two L3 and fourth-stage larvae (L4) were recovered from the lungs and five L3 from the liver of case 6. Digestion with Pepsin-HCL was a more effective method for recovery of L3 than baermannization, but L4 larvae were digested.
Five neonatal mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five yearling mule deer were experimentally infected with Elaeorphora schneideri. Infections ranging from 2 to 31 parasites established in 9 of 10 animals. Evidence of elaeophorosis was not observed in any animal, indicating that mule deer are normal definitive hosts.
Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism occurred in 16 red fox kits (Vulpes vulpes) ranging in age from 8 to 10 weeks. The kits were thin and unthrifty. The canine teeth varied in appearance from dull-pink to dull-gray. Most kits were affected with a mild bilateral conjunctivitis and some degree of kyphosis. There were palpable bilateral enlargements of the distal epiphyses of the radius, ulna, and femur, and the costochondral junctions of the ribs. Two kits examined by necropsy had lesions of progressive fibrous osteodystrophy. In four of the kits, mean plasma calcium levels (8.3 mg/100 ml) were reduced in conjunction with a concomitant rise in the mean phosphorous level (7.4 mg/100 ml). The mean plasma urea nitrogen level (24.7 mg/100 ml) was elevated and the mean total protein content (4.6 gm/100 ml) was reduced. Mean plasma activity values for alkaline phosphatase (107.8 mU/ml), lactic dehydrogenase (355.5 mU/ml), and glutamic oxalaoacetic transaminase (896.8 mU/ml) were markedly elevated.
Sea lions aborting on San Miguel Island, California, and fur seals on St. Paul Island, Alaska, were studied for the presence of infectious disease agents. Leptospira were isolated from both groups and may have been one cause of reproductive failure in both species. From a total of seven virus isolations made, one isolate from fur seals and two isolates from sea lions appear antigenically related by serum neutralization tests. In their host range, morphology, and physicochemical properties, the virus isolates are indistinguishable from Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus. Six mycoplasma isolations have been made but have not been fully characterized. A fungus, Scopulariopsis sp., isolated from three different sea lions, is the same genus that was repeatedly isolated from Navy divers during prolonged submergence studies.
Infectious pododermatitis (footrot) presumably caused by Spherophorus necrophorus occurred in the left front limb of a mature free-ranging female pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana Ord) in southeastern Alberta. Marked swelling of the coronary band, phalanges and metacarpus, with fistulous tracts above the hoof were observed. Tenacious, pale green pus was present in the periarticular tissues but did not involve articular surfaces. The causative organism was grown in pure culture on bovine blood agar, incubated anaerobically at 37 C. This is the first published account of footrot in pronghorns.
A Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from five of seven yearling elk (Cervus canadensis) at Red Rock Wildlife Area and 29 of 31 horse flies (Hybomitra laticornis) collected in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation of trypanosomes from elk.
Naturally-occurring streptocarosis, caused by Streptocara incognita Gibson, 1968, was diagnosed in two Chilean flamingos, Phoenicopterus chilensis. Ulcerative lesions of the proventriculus and gizzard caused by the nematodes resulted in a severe debilitative condition and eventual death. Streptocara incognita has been reported previously only in anseriform birds.
Lungworm prevalence and intensity in pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) were studied from the National Bison Range (NBR) and Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Collections were made from August, 1965 to July, 1966. Protostrongylus macrotis was recovered from 97 of 99 (96.9%) YNP pronghorns, with a mean intensity of 22.1 (0- 133) worms. Protostrongylus macrotis was found in pronghorns of all ages and was present during all months of the year. Lungworms were not recovered from 26 NBR pronghorns sampled during the same time period.
Severe dermatomycosis (ringworm) caused by an unidentified dermatophyte occurred in a mature, debilitated, female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from southwestern Alberta. Lesions involved much of the body surface and were characterized by severe alopecia of the face, lower thoracic wall and abdomen, perineum and limbs. The skin was markedly encrusted and scaly in all areas. The histologic lesions included marked hyperkeratosis and a chronic dermatitis with the presence of numerous spherical ecto- and endothrix arthrospores and segmented mycelial elements. The causative organism could not be grown on artificial media, but the distribution and morphology of arthrospores, the presence of segmented mycelia and the nature of the inflammatory reaction, suggested infection by a Trichophyton species. This is the first report of dermatomycosis in a free-ranging big game animal in North America.
The possible effect of a change in habitat on the number of foxes and hence on rabies has been examined by comparing the areas of abandoned farms and the number of cases of rabies in foxes for Georgia from 1930-1969. The relation was postulated from the observed abundance of foxes in recently abandoned farms in Georgia. Abandoned farmland in Georgia increased greatly around 1945-50, and an epidemic of rabies occurred in foxes. This correlation suggests that trends in use of land should be considered among the factors influencing future epidemics of rabies in wildlife.