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Skin, gill and visceral tubercle lesions were detected in marine tropical fish in an aquarium. Ninety-seven fish of 17 different genera were affected. The tubercles consisted of a wall of densely packed epithelioid cells and necrotic center packed with acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium marinum.
During the fall migration, of 1972 and 1973 unusually large numbers of goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) were counted at Hawk Ridge in Duluth, Minnesota. These birds were sampled for prevalence of fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Fungi of this genus were recovered from 26 of 49 birds (53%) in 1972 and 4 of 45 (7%) birds in 1973. Aspergillosis was confirmed at necropsy in three wild goshawks in 1972, but none in 1973. The disease was further confirmed at necropsy in 8 of 12 (67%) goshawks trapped in the fall and retained for falconry in 1972 and in 2 of 17 (12%) such birds in 1973. We suggest that the stress of intraspecific agonistic behavior in conjunction with a high density of goshawks and greatly reduced prey base may increase the susceptibility of these hawks to aspergillosis.
Baseline levels of boron, fluorine, molybdenum, and copper are described for 18 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and for 45 composite samples of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) from the Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. These data were collected before oil shale mining took place, and can be used to compare with levels found after mining is initiated. The data can thus be used to monitor changes in levels in animal tissues and as a basis for mitigating possible harmful effects due to the mining.
Mean ppm (± S.D.) dry basis of each element is presented for selected tissues of each species. Results are also presented by habitat type for deer mice and by age for mule deer. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in molybdenum levels in deer mice were found between habitats. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between fawns and adult mule deer for boron levels, but not for the other elements. A need to standardize bone selection for analysis of fluorine was indicated. Kidneys appeared to be the organ of choice for baseline sampling of molybdenum and copper, and livers may be the organ of choice when toxic levels are suspected.
The host specificity of Trypanoplasma salmositica was studied by experimental inoculation into 13 species of common teleosts (Notropis cornutus, Notropis heterolepis, Notropis spilopterus, Nocomis biguttatus, Rhinichthys atratulus, Semotilus atromaculatus, Carassius auratus, Ambloplites rupestris, Lepomis gibbosus, Etheostoma nigrum, Hypentelium nigricans, Ictalurus melas, and Eucalia inconstans). T. salmositica was not recovered at 14 and 40 days post inoculation. However, large numbers of the parasite were recovered from Salmo gairdneri and Cottus cognatus, thus indicating that sculpins might be reservoir hosts in certain areas where salmonids and sculpins occur in close proximity.
Using a modified In Vitro Plasma Incubation Technique, it was shown that the plasma of refractory fishes had lytic ability and the titer ranged from 1:4 to 1:8. Undiluted fresh plasma of goldfish and of the northern hog sucker lysed about 500 parasites within 30 to 60 mins at 4 C. This lytic ability of fresh plasma was heat labile and partial coagulation of the blood also reduced the lytic titer.
This study showed that Trypanoplasma salmositica was more host specific than originally reported. It was suggested that the mechanism responsible for providing the innate immunity to this parasite in some fishes was the Alternate Pathway of Complement Activation.
Fifteen percent (81 of 542) of striped skunks, Mephitis mephitis, collected in the prairie of Alberta and Saskatchewan during 1974 to 1978, were positive for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The seropositive rates varied from 8% (6 of 78) for skunks less than six months of age to 47% (9 of 19) in animals three or more years old. Spring and summer transmission was indicated by a preponderance of high titres (≥1:1024) in seropositive skunks collected April through September (22 of 40, 55%) compared to seropositives collected October through March (10 of 38, 26%) (P = <0.05). Prevalence was significantly greater among skunks collected in the relatively humid parkland (63 of 286, 22%) than in the arid prairie grassland biome (20 of 255, 8%) (P = <0.01). The results indicate that T. gondii is focally enzootic in Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Transmission studies with Sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) were conducted to determine host specificity of various stages of the parasite. Sporocysts were not passed by four dogs or four cats fed infected skeletal muscle from deer mice. Seven white mice (Mus musculus) and 34 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts following oral inoculation with S. idahoensis sporocysts; however, excystation of sporocysts occurred in two white-footed mice killed four hours post inoculation (PI). A gopher snake orally inoculated with sporocysts remained negative for coccidia for two months PI. Three deer mice orally inoculated and three intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with tachyzoites from liver meronts developed sarcocysts in their skeletal muscles similar to those seen in deer mice orally inoculated with sporocysts. Liver meronts were not found. Ten deer mice orally inoculated and 10 deer mice inoculated IP with bradyzoitee from S. idahoensis sarcocysts remained negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts at necropsy 17 days PI.
The role of the cat (Felis domestica) as a definitive host for Sarcocystis cuniculi of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was confirmed
It was shown that after dosing with sporocysts from cats, rabbits developed sarcocysts and these became infective for cats at not less than 93 days post-infection (p.i.). The earliest infection detected was at 142 days p.i
Infected muscle from an experimental rabbit did not transmit Sarcocystis when fed to other rabbits
Microscopically, sarcocysts in European rabbits (O. cuniculus) were morphologically indistinguishable from those in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus)
Encapsulated larvae of Trichinella spiralis were found in wild-trapped, Microtus pennsylvanicus and Sigmodon hispidus. In addition, Peromyscus leucopus and Mus musculus again were found infected. These mammals were trapped from a farm site in Henrico County, Virginia, remote from known potential sources of trichinosis. The possible zoonotic relationship between wild rodent trichinosis and swine trichinosis is discussed.
Sexual stages of a Sarcocystis of passerine birds were demonstrated by feeding muscle cysts from cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and grackles (Cassidix mexicanus) to opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Opossums were examined at necropsy at 36 h, 13.5 days, and 29.5 days post-inoculation (PI). Large numbers of macro- and microgamonts were present in the small intestine 36 h PI, while only sporocysts and oocysts were present 13 days or more PL Microgamonts in different stages of development were in the intestinal epithelium above the nucleus and macrogamont8 were at the base of the epithelial cells or in the lamina propria. Oocysts and sporocysts were in the core of the villus, beneath the basement membrane. Descriptions are given of the sexual stages as they appear in sections and smears.
Adult Dirofilaria immitis were found in the hearts of 43 of 115 coyotes (Canis latrans) trapped within a 50 km radius of the El Dorado County seat. Of mature coyotes, 45% were positive, with worm numbers averaging 9.0 in females and 16.2 in males. D. immitis microfilariae occurred in the peripheral blood and in lung smears. Microfilariae of Dipetalonema reconditum were present in 14 of the coyotes examined (12%). Several coyotes showed enlarged hearts with gross pathological changes.
An engorging female Ixodes pacificus was observed on a western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis) in Humboldt County, California. The mouse demonstrated a flaccid paraplegia, but it appeared to recover fully after the tick was removed.
The occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis in gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) was determined by gross examination, blood samples, and filtered tissue sediments in a sampling of 149 gray foxes taken from Alabama and Georgia during the 1977-78 trapping season. Microfilariae were not found in blood samples obtained from 24 of these gray foxes. Three of 82 male foxes (3.7%) and 1 of 67 female foxes (1.5%) were infected with heartworm. D. immitis rate of infection was 1 of 19 (5.3%) and 3 of 130 (2.3%), respectively, in juvenile and adult gray foxes. Single sex infections with D. immitis occurred in 4 of the 6 foxes, with a maximum nematode burden of approximately eight. Two other infected foxes were encountered separate from this study.
Dirofilaria immitis was found in 8 of 225 (3.6%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) collected from fur buyers and trappers in Bond, Clinton, DeKalb, Edgar, Ford, Jasper, Moultrie, and Richland counties, Illinois. Infections ranged from 1 to 23 nematodes per fox. The finding of D. immitis in red foxes represents a new host record for the state.
The gall bladder parasite, Chloromyxum trijugum, shows marked host specificity within the sunfish family Centrarchidae. During 1977-78 80% of 230 blue-gills (Lepomis macrochirus) in Iowa were infected. Prevalence in green sunfish (L. cyanellus) was lower (17%); one of 2 specimens of the hybrid L. macrochirus × L. cyanellus was infected; orangespotted sunfish (L. humilis) and hybrids (L. humilis × L. macrochirus) were not infected. Intensity of infection in bluegills varied throughout the year. Prevalence of free-floating Plasmodia in bluegill gall bladders was highest (100%) during winter and spring months, and decreased to 40-50% during summer and fall. Prevalence of attached plasmodia may remain 80-100% throughout the year. Sporulation and plasmotomy were observed year-round. Plasmodia were attached to underlying epithelial cells by pseudopodia-like projections and were associated with various stages of breakdown in the mucosal layer.
Experimental blood-induced infections of Plasmodium hermani were studied in young domestic and laboratory-reared wild turkey poults. Anemia, splenomegaly and decreased growth rates were observed, but no mortality due to the malarial infections occurred. It is suggested that malaria, acting in concert with other factors, may contribute to mortality of wild turkey poults in Florida during the first 3 to 4 weeks after hatching.
The pancreas of 231 dasyurid marsupials was examined. Focal interstitial pancreatitis was found in 22 animals, an exocrine adenoma in an Antechinus macdonnellensis and an islet cell adenoma in an Antechinus apicalis. Glycogenic vacuolation of islet cells found in one Antechinus sp. nov. and one Antechinus rosamondae is taken as evidence for spontaneous diabetes mellitus.
Forty-eight little penguins (Eudyptula minor) consisting of 21 (43.7%) mature, 18 (37.5%) juvenile and nine (18.7%) of undetermined age, from 10 Victorian coastal localities were examined during 1977-78. Thirty-seven (77%) of all penguins were in poor body condition with moderate to heavy burdens of internal and external parasites. Acute parasitic gastric ulceration with accompanying hemorrhage, was implicated in the death of four birds. Chronic gastric ulcers were thought to have caused appetite depression and starvation in 28 birds. Other significant lesions encountered included renal coccidiosis, parasitic cholangiohepatitis and pulmonary aspergillosis. It is suggested that the increased mortality experienced during 1977-78 was due to starvation or to exacerbation of the effects of existing parasite burdens on starving and exhausted birds.
Two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) came to necropsy with morphologically identical metastatic tumors. These were of glandular epithelial origin and were widespread throughout the visceral organs. Both animals were found beached and dead within two months and were only 220 km apart.
Lymphosarcoma is described in a wild juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii). Gross lesions included hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Neoplastic lymphoid cells were observed histologically in lung, kidney, liver, spleen, adrenals, bone marrow and visceral and peripheral lymph nodes.
Haematologic values have been determined for the wood duck, Chenonetta jubata, captured in the western fringes of Sydney. Values for females were usually slightly higher, and this follows the pattern for other species sampled in the prenesting period. The differences in haematological values between males and females were not statistically significant.
The report summarises an investigation into the health of wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in the field during the breeding season of a drought year. Health was assessed by morphometry, haematology and clinical chemistry and the findings were compared with those obtained for apparently healthy captive wombats.
The erythrocyte count was lower and the erythrocyte size greater in free-ranging wombats than in captive wombats. Plasma values for potassium, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase were greater in free-ranging wombats than captive wombats. Plasma values for creatinine, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were lower in the free-ranging group.
Nine type A influenza viruses were isolated from migrating and wintering ducks in Oklahoma in 1976-77. Antigenic classification of the viruses isolated revealed three different subtypes: Havl Nav2, Hws Nl, and Hav6 N2. Transmission of influenza viruses from the wild ducks to sentinel birds (McGraw mallards) on the same lakes was not detected.
Dual infection of 12 day-old quail (Colinus virginianus) with 106 plaque forming units of CELO virus and low doses of avian adeno-associated virus (A-AV), resulted in significant enhancement of CELO virus-induced mortality, whereas dual infections with high doses of A-AV resulted in a delay in mortality. A-AV induced enhancement and inhibition of CELO virus pathogenicity could be blocked by the addition of A-AV antiserum prior to infection.
An outbreak of avian pox, with an estimated 12-fold increase in the incidence of infection, occurred among wild bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) in the southwestern Georgia/northcentral Florida region. The outbreak was first detected in July, 1978, and continued at least until March, 1979. During this period, 26 separate clinical case accessions involving 43 bobwhites from 8 counties in Florida and Georgia were diagnosed as avian pox. A survey of 2,586 bobwhites from 6 southeastern states revealed avian pox infections in 312 bobwhites from Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee. Seventy-seven percent of the infected birds in the survey had only mild lesions on the legs and feet; however, 23% had more extensive lesions on the head. Severely affected birds had lesions around the eyes, nares, and in the mouth which impaired vision, respiration, and/or feeding. Infection rates were not related to age or sex of the birds but varied greatly among locales, even on adjoining properties. A morbidity rate of approximately 2% and a mortality rate between 0.6 and 1.2% were estimated for a 13,000 km2 region in Georgia and Florida.
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was transmitted to a bison (Bison bison) by intravenous inoculation of whole blood obtained from a calf showing signs of experimental MCF. Clinical signs evident on the 25th day following inoculation included depression, weakness, epiphora, serous nasal discharge, watery diarrhea and multifocal ulcerations of oral mucosa. Gross and histopathological lesions observed in the bison were similar to those in cattle with a few qualitative differences. Compared to bovine cases, MCF in bison was characterized by more severe edema, congestion, and hemorrhage and accumulation of fewer lymphoid cells in lesions.
The presence of pox in a northern fur seal pup, Callorhinus ursinus, examined at necropsy on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 13 September 1951 was confirmed by re-examination of formalin-fixed tissues collected at that time. The disease was characterized by multiple 3 to 8 mm nodules in the skin of the nose and flippers. Unlike pox lesions in other pinnipeds studied so far, the nodules were discrete dermal epitheliomas free of any direct connections with the overlying atrophic epidermis. They most likely arose from outer sheath cells of hair follicles. The tightly packed epithelial cells forming the nodules contained large, round, eosinophilic, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. As demonstrated by electron microscopy nearly 27 years after the tissues were fixed in formalin, poxvirus virions also were present in these cells. These findings indicate pox was present in a northern fur seal, hitherto un-described in that species, 18 years before the disease was first reported in pinnipeds.