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Spherical organisms, with an average diameter of about 22 μm, were detected in the lungs of adult and pouched young hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). Although infections of up to 640 × 103 organisms per cubic centimeter were detected, their presence produced only limited pathological change. In-vitro growth was obtained at 30 C but not at 37 C or 40 C. However, at the higher temperatures, typical chlamydospore spherules were produced by colonies initially grown at 30 C. This report presents the first record of adiaspiromycosis in Australia and in wombats.
Oral tranquilizers were mixed with a grain bait and fed to pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in an attempt to immobilize and thus facilitate their capture. Diazepam, administered at 6 mg/kg body weight immobilized a tame pronghorn fawn within 30 min. Tranquilization was still apparent after 8 h. A minimum dose of 23 mg/kg body weight was necessary to immobilize a wild adult pronghorn. Immobilization occurred after 60 min and tranquilization was apparent 24 h post ingestion. Excitement severely impeded the effect of the drug and although easily captured, the animal struggled wildly when handled. Wild pronghorn fawns showed moderate tranquilization when administered diazepam at 23 mg/kg body weight but were unapproachable. Doses of diazepam between 13 and 23 mg/kg body weight were used to capture tame yearling and adult pronghorn held in a 132 ha enclosure. A dose of 23 mg/kg body weight was excessive in that the animals did not recover for 48 to 54 h post ingestion and had difficulty maintaining a sternal bedding position. Diazepam at 13 mg/kg body weight failed to tranquilize the animals sufficiently for easy capture. Promazine hydrochloride at doses of 2 to 17 mg/kg body weight, given orally to wild pronghorn fawns and an adult, did not produce visible signs of tranquilization. Animals refused to eat bait containing doses of promazine hydrochloride greater than 17 mg/kg body weight.
Glutaraldehyde coagulation test, zinc sulfate turbidity test, and total protein refractometry were adapted for use in detecting failure of passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins to mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus). The results of all three tests were similar. Serum total protein concentration was directly correlated to gamma globulin concentration and gave the best indication of morbidity and mortality. Thirteen of 13 fawns with serum total protein concentrations of 5 g/dl or less at 1 to 7 days of age developed diarrhea and died before 17 days of age. Only 1 of 14 fawns having a serum protein concentration above this level became sick and died. Seven of 13 fawns that had serum total protein concentrations of 5 g/dl or less, and that had already developed diarrhea, were given 20 ml of plasma per kg body weight. Although this increased their serum gamma globulin concentrations 0.3 g/dl, none survived. Administration of bovine colostrum to one fawn increased its serum gamma globulin concentration suggesting that mule deer fawns are able to absorb gamma globulins from bovine colostrum.
A tissue cyst-forming coccidian morphologically resembling the known species Hammondia has a mink-muskrat life cycle. Cysts are found in skeletal muscle of muskrats (Ondatra zibetheca). Mink (Mustela vison) fed infected muskrat carcasses shed oocysts for 4 to 6 days after a prepatent period of 6 to 8 days. The oocysts, 99% of which are unsporulated in mink feces, measure 11.5 to 12 μm × 10 to 11 μm. Sporulated oocysts have 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites. The present work was insufficient to establish whether this Hammondia-like parasite is identical to the known Hammondia spp. or is a new parasite, although the evidence gathered supports the hypothesis that this parasite is a new member of the genus Hammondia.
Sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100 of 185 (54.1%) Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) examined in Pennsylvania over a three year period. Gross and histologic examination commonly revealed cysts in skeletal muscle of the fore and hind legs, flanks and loins. Two rabbits had cysts in esophageal skeletal muscle. Host response to Sarcocystis sp. is described. Adult rabbits had a significantly greater rate of infection (69.3%) than juveniles (20.7%) (P<0.01).
During turtle farming operations in Torres Strait, green turtles (Chelonia mydas) penned on Murray Island became infected with a larval nematode (Anisakis sp. Type I). The larvae were found associated with haemorrhagic ulcers in the pyloroduodenal junction of the alimentary tract. The apparent source of infection was a locally abundant sardine (Harengula ovalis), on which the Murray Island turtles were fed. Turtles held on other islands in the region were not fed sardines and remained uninfected. Recommendations were made to prevent further infection.
A fatal case of notoedric mange is described in an adult male bobcat, Felis rufus, from south Texas. This cat was extremely weak and emaciated. Skin lesions consisted of greatly thickened, gray encrustations and alopecia of the muzzle, eyes, crown, ears and parietal scalp extending down the neck to the midscapular region of the shoulders. Histologically, there was partial to complete excoriation of the stratum corneum with erosions into the stratum germinativum to the level of the dermis in some areas. Numerous specimens of Notoedres cati (Hering, 1838) were noted, usually in the stratum corneum, sometimes burrowing into the stratum germinativum. A mild dermal inflammatory response consisting principally of neutrophils and round cells was observed. Confirmed notoedric mange with clinical signs similar to the above was also observed by a local veterinarian in three bobcat kittens from the same area. These were treated with a sulfurated lime shampoo followed by VIP dip. Subsequently, they recovered without consequence. These cases emphasize the possibility of notoedric mange as a potential epizootic disease in wild felid populations.
A massive infection of metacercariae, particularly of the white grub (Posthodiplostomum m. minimum), was found in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) taken in November, 1979 from a commercial baitfish farm in Missouri. More than 2000 metacercariae were found in one fish 6 cm long. Low-grade mortality was occurring, and histologic sections showed that an intensive inflammatory response had resulted from the infection. The body cavity also contained a large volume of ascitic fluid with many blood cells, of which 92% were leucocytes. Moderate numbers of metacercariae caused a lesser inflammatory response.
Fifty-five spotted seals, Phoca largha, from the seasonal pack ice of the Bering Sea were examined for helminth parasites. Twelve species of helminths were found: Anophryocephalus ochotensis, Diplogonoporus tetrapterus, Diphyllobothrium cordatum, Phocanema decipiens, Contracaecum osculatum, Dipetalonema spirocauda, Phocitrema fusiforme, Corynosoma semerme, C. strumosum, C. validum, C. villosum, and Bolbosoma sp. Six species are new host records (A. ochotensis, D. tetrapterus, D. cordatum, D. spirocauda, C. validum, and C. villosum).
The nasal passages of 349 pinnipeds of seven species were examined for halarachnid mites. Each of seven Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), 75 of 99 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and four of 71 spotted seals (P. largha) were infected, but none of 28 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), 43 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 58 ribbon seals (P. fasciata), and 43 bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) was infected. The sea lions harbored Orthohalarachne attenuata (Banks, 1910) and O. diminuata (Doetschman, 1944), and the harbor and spotted seals harbored Halarachne halichoeri Allman, 1847. The finding of H. halichoeri in the spotted seals is a new host record.
Adult Trichobilharzia physellae were recovered from the liver and mesenteric veins of green-winged teal, Anas creca, blue-winged teal, A. discors, and pintail, A. acuta, breeding on the High Plains of Texas. Wild ducks naturally-infected with these schistosomes were emaciated with mild to severe atrophy of the breast musculature. The liver was considerably enlarged, pale and somewhat friable. Numerous viable and dead T. physellae were recovered from the cut surface. On histologic examination, viable adult schistosomes were observed in the portal veins and dead, partly calcified T. physellae were found in the interlobular bile ducts. The normal liver architecture was well preserved but there was mild to extensive fibroplasia of most portal triads. An intense inflammatory response consisting mainly of eosinophils and fibroblasts with a few histiocytes, epithelioid cells, plasma cells, and lymphocytes surrounded the infected triads. There was pressure atrophy of adjacent hepatic parenchyma, hyperplasia or atrophy of the bile duct epithelium, bile stasis in smaller interlobular ducts, ectasia of larger portal ducts, focal areas of inflammatory cells throughout the liver, and periphlebitis of portal veins. The basic lesion presented as an obstructive fibrosis of the portal triads. These lesions are compared with those reported in infections by other schistosome species in their respective hosts. The oculate, apharyngeate, furcocercous cercariae of T. physellae were recovered from the snail first intermediate host, Physa anatina. Attempts to infect domestic mallard ducks via skin penetration by these cercariae were unsuccessful. This is the first record of a cercarial dermatitis-producing schistosome species from the Texas Panhandle and the first detailed description of such extensive lesions produced by adult schistosomes in the liver of a vertebrate host.
Cysts of Myxobolus osburni occurred throughout the pancreas in 119 of 150 (79.3%) pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) from West Lake Okoboji, northwest Iowa during the summer, 1980. None of 341 bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were infected. Lobate cysts (up to 3 mm diameter) adjacent to the gall bladder contained sporulating Plasmodia and mature spore masses. Inflammatory responses in the infected pancreas included engorged blood vessels, endocrine cell nuclei pyknosis, leukocyte (mostly lymphocyte) infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, dark pigment deposition and fibrosis. Host reaction was most pronounced in pancreas containing unencapsulated spore aggregates. Spore variability and plasmodial structure are also described.
A total of 1650 birds of 56 species representing 21 families (primarily Passeriformes), was examined for blood parasites in the Lorraine region of France. Only 120 (7.3%) birds were infected, with members of the Paridae, Sylviidae and Turdidae the most frequently parasitized. Haemoproteids were the most commonly encountered parasites followed by the leucocytozoids. Other avian hematozoon genera were uncommon. Prevalence of parasitism was closely similar each year over a three-year period. Immature birds were first noted to be infected with Leucocytozoon in mid-June, suggesting transmission in late May to early June. Haemoproteids were first noted in immature birds in early July, suggesting transmission in mid-June. A review of the literature indicates that the prevalence of parasitism by avian blood parasites has decreased in western Europe since the turn of the century and is currently much lower than the prevalence encountered in Scandinavia, central Russia and eastern North America.
Twenty Trichomonas-free ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria) were intubated with Trichomonas gallinae derived from pigeons (Columba livia). By 15 days post-intubation (DPI) five doves had T. gallinae-type lesions (Cankers) in the pregastric portion of the digestive system, and six doves had T. gallinae present without lesions. Sixteen Trichomonas-free ring doves were infected using T. gallinae from axenic cultures. By 21 DPI four doves had T. gallinae lesions and died, and one dove had T. gallinae present without lesions.
This is the first report of T. gallinae lesions in ring doves since Cauthen reported it in 1936.
A large mesenteric tumour in a Rusa hind (Cervus timoriensis) was diagnosed as a leiomyosarcoma on the basis of tumour size, degree of necrosis, cellular pleomorphism, anaplasia, mitotic activity and evidence of local invasion. Rupture of the tumour and consequent haemorrhage was the immediate cause of death. Both kidneys were enclosed in bony masses which appeared to have replaced the normal perirenal fat. The bone was normal cancellous bone with active haemopoietic marrow. There did not appear to be any connection between the tumour and the metaplastic perirenal bone.
Normal values for 10 hematologic and 18 blood chemical parameters were calculated for non-kitten mountain lions, Felis concolor. A significant difference (P≤ 0.10) existed between the wild and captive mountain lions sampled for 10 parameters. A significant difference (P ≤ 0.10) existed between the female and male mountain lions sampled for two parameters.
Diurnal and winter variations of four hematological parameters were examined in 10 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). The mean values obtained were: 39.4% packed cell volume (PCV); 2.45 × 106 erythrocytes (RBC) per mm3 of blood; 5.73 mg of calcium and 1.44 mg of magnesium per 100 ml of plasma. Only the PCV and RBC count showed significant diurnal variation. When the birds were sampled at a set time of day, from November through to February, no significant changes were detected in any of the four parameters. Variation among the birds in RBC count, PCV and calcium concentration was significant on a diurnal basis but over the four month period only the PCV varied significantly.
One of 73 wild Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) captured at Sheep Creek, Alaska, had crusty lesions on mammary glands and teats compatible with contagious ecthyma (CE). A paravaccinia virus, indistinguishable from CE virus was cultured from the crusted scabs removed from the mammary gland. This is the first report of CE in free-ranging Dall sheep.