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Lycalopex sechurae (Thomas, 1900) is a small canid commonly called the Sechura fox or Sechuran desert fox. It is distributed in coastal zones from southwestern Ecuador to west-central Peru; ranging in elevation from sea level to at least 1,000 m and possibly 2,000 m. L. sechurae is an opportunistic omnivore with the capability of being a strict vegetarian when necessary. Habitat preferences include desert environments and adjacent beaches, cultivated areas, dry forests, foothills, sea cliffs, and the western slopes of the Andes. L. sechurae increases seed dispersion for some plant species. It is considered Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Przewalskium albirostre (Przewalski, 1883) is a physically unique cervid commonly called the white-lipped deer. Przewalskium is monotypic. This species is a high-elevation specialist endemic to the eastern Tibetan Plateau where it inhabits relatively open hills and mountains with a mosaic of forest edges, meadows, and shrublands. Populations of P. albirostre are highly fragmented and vulnerable because of exploitation and competition with domestic livestock of pastoralists. There have been no systematic efforts to estimate the total number of extant P. albirostre, and it is considered Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is farmed for its antlers in China and is represented in zoos and private collections.
Bradypus variegatusSchinz, 1825 (the brown-throated three-toed sloth), is 1 of 4 extant three-toed sloths. A high-canopy folivore, B. variegatus is distributed over southern Central America and northern and central South America and is listed as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources because of its wide distribution. Males have a middorsal speculum. B. variegatus has a commensal relationship with the algae and invertebrates that live in its thick pelage. It does not adapt well to zoo settings.
Gracilinanus microtarsus (J. A. Wagner, 1842), called the Brazilian gracile opossum, is a small didelphid that is 1 of 6 species in the genus Gracilinanus. It is a sexually dimorphic, solitary marsupial that has a highly seasonal reproductive pattern. It inhabits Atlantic rain forests and semideciduous forests interspersed in the highly seasonal cerrado (savanna-like vegetation) in southeastern and southern Brazil. It prefers locations associated with low canopy cover and it also occurs in habitats altered by anthropogenic events. The species is classified as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Phyllonycteris poeyi Gundlach, 1861, a medium-sized bat, is a phyllostomid commonly called the Cuban flower bat or Poey's flower bat. Phyllonycteris is endemic to the Greater Antilles and P. poeyi is endemic to Cuba and Hispaniola. P. poeyi is characterized by a rudimentary nose leaf, median groove on lower lip ridged with papillae, and ears that are moderately large and separate. P. poeyi shows marked sexual dimorphism in size, with males being larger than females in some cranial and body dimensions. It is a gregarious and obligate cave dweller that usually inhabits the innermost parts of blind galleries. P. poeyi has been captured in evergreen forest, secondary forest, and ravines. P. poeyi is listed as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Octomys mimax O. Thomas, 1920, the viscacha rat, is a surface-dwelling rodent, endemic to the Monte biome of western Argentina. The genus Octomys is monotypic and represents a basal clade within the family Octodontidae. O. mimax is strictly herbivorous and is found in low-elevation arid environments characterized by galleries or rock formations. In these environments, O. mimax nests within rock crevices located inside ravines with relatively low vegetation cover. O. mimax is solitary and mostly nocturnal. Nocturnal activity coupled with a basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance lower than expected for body mass of O. mimax probably represent strategies for water conservation in this species.
Lemur cattaLinnaeus, 1758, is a lemurid commonly called the ring-tailed lemur. A strikingly colored, long-tailed lemur, it is the only species in the genus Lemur. It occurs in the southern half of Madagascar, where it inhabits a variety of forested habitats. It is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Microtus miurusOsgood, 1901, is a cricetid commonly called the singing vole. An average-sized, short-tailed vole, it is 1 of 62 species in the genus Microtus. It occurs in northwestern Canada and Alaska, where it inhabits well-drained tundra and extends into subalpine and alpine regions. It is unique among arvicolines in that it not only hoards underground but also constructs haypiles above ground. It is listed as a species of “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Thylamys pallidior (O. Thomas, 1902) is a didelphid marsupial commonly called the white-bellied fat-tailed mouse opossum. A small mouse opossum, with tricolored pelage and a white venter, it has a seasonally incrassated tail, where fat deposits, primarily at the tail base, function in food storage. It is the most widely distributed species in the genus occurring from southwestern Peru and northern Chile southward along the eastern slopes of the Andes to southern Argentina. This species is found primarily in arid and semiarid habitats at elevations from sea level to about 4,500 m. It is not of special conservation status but may be uncommon in some areas.
Atelerix albiventris (Wagner, 1841) is an erinaceid with variable common names but is most widely known as the four-toed hedgehog. One of 4 members of the genus Atelerix, A. albiventris is the smallest of the African hedgehogs. These nocturnal insectivores are sexually dimorphic and widespread, and are not a species of special conservation concern. Native to equatorial Africa, they inhabit steppes, savannas, grasslands, and agricultural fields. A. albiventris has been domesticated and is widely used in biomedical research and sold in the exotic pet trade.
Peromyscus mexicanus (Saussure, 1860) is a medium-sized cricetid commonly called the Mexican deermouse. It is 1 of 56 species but can be readily distinguished from nearly all other species of Peromyscus by the near absence of hair on the tail. It is found from the tropical lowlands of Mexico to Panama and it exhibits geographic and seasonal variation in coat color. Its preferred habitat includes forested regions where it is often found in burrows beneath fallen logs and among the underbrush and roots of trees. P. mexicanus prefers deep forest to edge forest. The Mexican government does not consider this species as endangered.
Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901) is a medium-sized leaf-nosed fruit bat commonly known as the Recife's broad-nosed bat because of its type locality, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Its distribution was originally thought to be circumscribed to the Atlantic rain forests of northeastern and southeastern Brazil but was recently broadened to encompass several locations in the tropical rain forests of South America, including Amazonian records in Guyana and Suriname in northern South America, and Paraná State in southern South America. Individuals of P. recifinus have been captured in primary and secondary forest, and open areas ranging from 200 to 1,530 m in elevation. The conservation status of this species was recently listed as “Least Concern” by The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Procapra przewalskii (Büchner, 1891), commonly called Przewalski's gazelle, is polytypic with 1 of the 2 subspecies (P. p. diversicornis) likely extinct. The species now occurs only in the Qinghai Lake region in northeastern Qinghai Province, western China, and predominately inhabits semiarid grassland steppe, stable sand dunes, and the desert–shrub ecotone between them. Numbers and distribution of P. przewalskii have decreased severely from historic levels, and up to 10 small and disjunct populations are vulnerable because of agricultural usurpation of preferred habitat, competition with livestock, and illegal hunting. Total population is perhaps as high as 1,000–1,300 individuals. It is a Class I species and listed as “Critically Endangered” in China and considered “Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is arguably among the most endangered large mammals on earth.
Procapra picticaudataHodgson, 1846, is commonly called the Tibetan gazelle, goa ( = Tibetan), or zang yuan ling ( = Chinese) and is monotypic. It is a high-elevation specialist endemic to the Tibetan Plateau where it prefers alpine meadow and alpine steppe but uses other lower-elevation plains and valleys. It is partial to good grasslands with high diversity of forbs. There have been no systematic estimates of total numbers of P. picticaudata. Populations are currently widespread but have been reduced from historic levels and are vulnerable because of poaching in remote areas and competition with livestock of pastoralists. P. picticaudata is uncommon in zoos and private collections. It is a threatened Class II species in China and considered “Near Threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Trachypithecus cristatus (Raffles, 1821), silvered lutung, is a colobine monkey of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. It has a pointed crest and outward-projecting cheek hairs, and gray skin and pelage with some grayish white hairs that are lighter distally, giving a silvered appearance. Diurnal and arboreal, it runs and jumps quadrupedally, with limited semibrachiation. Its large stomach and foregut fermentation allow it to digest a diet with a high proportion of leaves. It lives in single male–multifemale groups and smaller multimale groups in a polygynous, cooperative-breeding mating system. As with other nonhuman primates, it is threatened throughout its range by logging, hunting for meat and medicinal uses, and capture for the pet trade.
Tapirus pinchaque (Roulin, 1829), the mountain tapir, is considered the smallest and least specialized of the 4 species of Tapirus. It is restricted to parts of temperate areas from Colombia and Ecuador to extreme northwestern Peru. It is a foliage browser that generally inhabits moist habitats that facilitate bathing; however, they are frequently found in thick bush in the cold and humid zones of the Andes between 1,400 and 4,400 m. T. pinchaque, one of the rarest mammals in the world, is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora and is considered “Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Spermophilus xanthoprymnus (Bennett, 1835), the Asia Minor ground squirrel, is a group-living, diurnal, obligately hibernating marmotine squirrel. It inhabits the steppes and alpine meadows throughout central lowland and eastern highland Anatolia and adjacent Armenia and northwestern Iran. Its preferred elevation appears to range from about 800 to 2,900 m. The species displays sexual dimorphism in size, with adult males being considerably larger than adult females and exhibits geographic variation in body size. It is presently listed as “Near Threatened” on the 2009 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List of Threatened Species because of large-scale agricultural activities that result in habitat destruction and fragmentation.
Glis glis (Linnaeus, 1766) is a glirid commonly called the fat or edible dormouse. It is the largest dormouse and the only species in the genus Glis. Range mainly overlaps with a deciduous and mixed forest zone in Europe and southwestern Asia. Principal habitat is deciduous and mixed woodland and the species is strictly nocturnal. G. glis is unusual among small rodents in its long life expectancy (mean is about 9 years), prolonged hibernation (up to 7 months), and periodic reproductive failure. It is a species of conservation concern along the northern part of its range, and a game animal in Slovenia and Croatia.
Petauroides volans (Kerr, 1792) is a pseudocherid marsupial with the common name greater glider. It is the largest and most conspicuous of the gliding possums and is 1 of the most numerous arboreal marsupials in the eucalypt forests of eastern Australia. Its gliding membranes are large and its thick, shaggy coat obscures the basic body form, making the animal appear much larger than it actually is. P. volans is nocturnal, arboreal, solitary, and folivorous and is dependent on large tree hollows for shelter. In Australia, P. volans has received particular attention because it is highly sensitive to the removal of old hollow-bearing trees during forestry practices such as clear-cutting.
Peromyscus difficilis (J. A. Allen, 1891) is a cricetid rodent commonly called the southern rock deermouse or Zacatecan deermouse. It is of medium body size for the genus (28–43 g), with large ears and a long, evenly bicolored tail that is always slightly longer than the head plus body length. It is 1 of 56 species in the genus Peromyscus and includes 5 subspecies. P. difficilis is a Mexican endemic distributed throughout the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental, southward through the mountainous regions of Guanajuato, Puebla, Hidalgo, and Veracruz, into northern and central Oaxaca. Habitat preferences range from dry, semiarid hills to montane forests. P. difficilis is not of special conservation concern.
Microtus californicus (Peale, 1848) is a cricetid commonly called the California vole or California meadow mouse. A sexually dimorphic, medium-sized vole, M. californicus is 1 of 62 species in the genus Microtus. It is found in the interior valleys of southwestern Oregon, most of California, and northern Baja California, Mexico. M. californicus is found in a wide range of habitats from arid uplands to wet meadows and salt marshes. Several subspecies are listed as of conservation concern; the Amargosa vole, M. c. scirpensis, is listed as federally endangered.
Pteronotus personatus (Wagner, 1843) is a mormoopid bat commonly called Wagner's mustached bat. A small bat, fully furred, it is 1 of 6 species in the genus Pteronotus. This species ranges from the most tropical regions of Mexico to South America across northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana and through northwestern Colombia, and in a band across Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, as far south as the Mato Grosso. It is frequently associated with watercourses and dense vegetation and prefers hot, humid caves and mines for roosting sites. It is considered a species of “Least Concern,” but the status of many populations is uncertain.
Glauconycteris variegata (Tomes, 1861), commonly known as the variegated butterfly bat, is 1 of 12 species in the genus Glauconycteris. It is a pale-yellow or light-gray bat with pale, translucent wing and tail membranes that are reticulated with a prominent lattice of darkly pigmented venation. It is widespread across savannah, woodland, and bushveldt habitats in sub-Saharan Africa. It roosts most often in trees, eats insects—especially moths—on the wing, and echolocates with high-intensity, frequency-modulated calls typically sweeping from 70 to 30 kHz. G. variegata is considered a species of “Least Concern,” albeit population trends are unknown.