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We estimate the economic loss due to hypothetical beach closures on the Padre Island National Seashore on the Gulf Coast of Texas. We consider the closure of the entire park, groups of beaches in the park, and for comparison, beaches elsewhere on the coast. We estimate a linked site choice/trip frequency model of day trips. The site choice model is estimated using multinomial and mixed logit. The trip frequency model is estimated using a negative binomial regression. Using the mixed logit model, the mean per-trip loss for the closure of all Padre beaches is about $20; the loss-to-trip ratio is about $180, and the aggregate loss for a season (May–September) is about $73 million (2008$).
This article is an extension of previous work on tilapia in the US market (Norman-López and Asche 2008). This study investigates the degree of market integration between fresh farmed tilapia fillets and fresh fillets of farmed catfish, wild sea dab, wild blackback flounder, and wild whole fresh red snapper in the US market. The literature suggests farmed and wild fish of alternative species do not compete. However, this may be changing as new farmed species are introduced to new markets. The results indicate no relationship between prices of fresh tilapia and catfish. Hence, there is no evidence that fresh tilapia fillets compete in the same market as catfish fillets. Conversely, fresh farmed tilapia fillets compete with wild whole red snapper, wild fresh fillets of sea dab, and blackback flounder. The implications are important for managing these overexploited wild fish species, as prices will most likely decline with increased imports of fresh tilapia fillets. This could lead to lower investments in fishing fleets and a reduction in fishing effort over time.
Social accounting matrices (SAMs) are constructed for two communities on the West Coast which have previously been classified as natural resource dependent; Westport, Washington and Newport, Oregon. The SAMs are constructed in an innovative way that allows for the economic dependency and utilization of natural resources, especially marine resources, to be examined in detail. The SAM utilizes data from a mix of publically available secondary sources and data collected directly from local governments. The SAMs are then subjected to an economic base analysis to develop indices of economic dependence.
The results of this study indicate that while fishing and fish processing are no longer a major source of gross measures of output, employment, wages, or gross regional product (GRP) in any state or even county on the West Coast; from an economic export income perspective cities such as Westport, Washington are heavily dependent on these industries for their economic base.
The importance of resource rent in fisheries has long been acknowledged. By generating such rents, economically efficient management systems increase value added and the sector's contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) and growth. However, despite the successful adoption of such systems in some countries around the world, economics continues to have relatively little influence on fisheries policy. This lack of influence is particularly noticeable in developing countries, precisely where the contribution that effectively managed fish resources might make to the GDP is most urgently needed. The key requirement to increase the adoption of economically rational fisheries management is to convince policymakers to focus explicitly on the wealth-generating potential of fish resources. Such a focus provides a general policy framework within which other approaches, such as rights-based, incentive-based, and ecosystem-based, may be nested. This approach is likely to prove more effective in influencing policy, especially in situations where rights-based systems either will not work or are politically unacceptable.
Fisheries management is complicated in nearly all cases by various types of uncertainty. Numerous economics and fisheries science publications prescribe adjustments to harvest strategies and regulations in the face of uncertainty. The conclusions and recommendations from this body of work are often contradictory, critically dependent on stringent assumptions, and difficult to implement. In this article, we summarize and compare the conclusions of economists, ecologists, and fisheries scientists regarding management of fisheries under uncertainty. We identify common findings and discuss divergent ones. We also attempt to explain why the theoretical prescriptions of this literature have rarely been implemented by fisheries managers. Finally, we discuss management strategy evaluation (MSE), a simulation-based approach designed to identify harvest strategies that are robust to various types of uncertainty and capable of balancing multiple economic, social, and biological objectives.