The genus Sanchezia Ruiz & Pav. (Acanthaceae), described by Ruiz and Pavón in the late 18th century as containing two species, is a group of Neotropical herbs and shrubs with large, brightly colored flowers and/or bracts. The genus was most recently revised by Leonard and Smith (1964) who accepted 58 species, of which over half were newly described. Subsequent workers have found these new species, as well as those previously described, difficult to identify with confidence. We conducted a thorough literature and specimen survey to prepare a nomenclatural synopsis of all validly published names and synonyms in Sanchezia. Fifty-five species are taxonomically accepted in this treatment, with an additional form recognized within S. thinophila Leonard, S. thinophila f. glabra Leonard. Lectotypifications are proposed for the following 10 names: Ancylogyne munita Nees [≡ S. munita (Nees) Planch.], S. cyathibractea Mildbr., S. ecuadorensis Leonard, S. filamentosa Lindau, S. longiflora (Hook. f.) Hook. f. [≡ A. longiflora Hook. f.], S. loranthifolia Lindau, S. oblonga Ruiz & Pav., S. ovata Ruiz & Pav., S. scandens (Lindau) Leonard & L. B. Sm. [≡ Steirosanchezia scandens Lindau], and S. sprucei Lindau.
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