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McGale, P. and Darby, S. C. Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation and Circulatory Diseases: A Systematic Review of the Published Epidemiological Evidence. Radiat. Res. 163, 247– 257 (2005).
Recent analyses of mortality among atomic bomb survivors have suggested a linear dose–response relationship between ionizing radiation and diseases of the circulatory system for exposures in the range 0–4 Sv. If confirmed, this has substantial implications. We have therefore reviewed the published literature to see if other epidemiological data support this finding. Other studies allowing a comparison of the rates of circulatory disease in individuals drawn from the same population but exposed to ionizing radiation at different levels within the range 0–5 Gy or 0–5 Sv were identified through systematic literature searches. Twenty-six studies were identified. In some, disease rates among those exposed at different levels may have differed for reasons unrelated to radiation exposure, while many had low power to detect effects of the relevant magnitude. Among the remainder, one study found appreciable evidence that exposure to low-dose radiation was associated with circulatory diseases, but five others, all with appreciable power, did not. We conclude that the other epidemiological data do not at present provide clear evidence of a risk of circulatory diseases at doses of ionizing radiation in the range 0–4 Sv, as suggested by the atomic bomb survivors. Further evidence is needed to characterize the possible risk.
Nakamura, N. A Hypothesis: Radiation-Related Leukemia is Mainly Attributable to the Small Number of People who Carry Pre-existing Clonally Expanded Preleukemic Cells. Radiat. Res. 163, 258–265 (2005).
Human leukemia frequently involves recurrent translocations. Since radiation is a well-known inducer of both leukemia and chromosomal translocations, it has long been suspected that radiation might cause leukemia by inducing specific translocations. However, recent studies clearly indicate that spontaneous translocations specific to acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) actually occur much more frequently than do leukemia cases with the same translocations. Moreover, the ALL-associated translocation-bearing cells are often found to have clonally expanded in individuals who do not develop ALL. Since radiation-induced DNA damage is generated essentially randomly in the genome, it does not seem likely that radiation could ever be responsible for the induction of identical translocations of relevance to ALL in multiple cells of an individual and hence be the primary cause of radiation-related leukemia. An alternative hypothesis described here is that the radiation-related ALL risk for a population is almost entirely attributable to a small number of predisposed individuals in whom relatively large numbers of translocation-carrying pre-ALL cells have accumulated. This preleukemic clone hypothesis explains various known characteristics of radiation-related ALL and implies that people who do not have substantial numbers of preleukemic cells (i.e. the great majority) are likely at low risk of developing leukemia. The hypothesis can also be applied to chronic myelogenous leukemia and to young-at-exposure cases of acute myelogenous leukemia.
Okazaki, R., Ootsuyama, A. and Norimura, T. Radioadaptive Response for Protection against Radiation-Induced Teratogenesis. Radiat. Res. 163, 266–270 (2005).
To clarify the characteristics of the radioadaptive response in mice, we compared the incidence of radiation-induced malformations in ICR mice. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a priming dose of 2 cGy (667 μGy/min) on day 9.5 of gestation and to a challenging dose of 2 Gy (1.04 Gy/min) 4 h later and were killed on day 18.5 of gestation. The incidence of malformations and prenatal death and fetal body weights were studied. The incidence of external malformations was significantly lower (by approximately 10%) in the primed (2 cGy 2 Gy) mice compared to the unprimed (2 Gy alone) mice. However, there were no differences in the incidence of prenatal death or the skeletal malformations or the body weights between primed and unprimed mice. These results suggest that primary conditioning with low doses of radiation suppresses radiation-induced teratogenesis.
Hachiya, M. and Akashi, M. Catalase Regulates Cell Growth in HL60 Human Promyelocytic Cells: Evidence for Growth Regulation by H2O2. Radiat. Res. 163, 271–282 (2005).
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are generated constitutively in mammalian cells. Because of its relatively long life and high permeability across membranes, H2O2 is thought to be an important second messenger. Generation of H2O2 is increased in response to external insults, including radiation. Catalase is located at the peroxisome and scavenges H2O2. In this study, we investigated the role of catalase in cell growth using the H2O2-resistant variant HP100-1 of human promyelocytic HL60 cells. HP100-1 cells had an almost 10-fold higher activity of catalase than HL60 cells without differences in levels of glutathione peroxidase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD). HP100-1 cells had higher proliferative activity than HL60 cells. Treatment with catalase or the introduction of catalase cDNA into HL60 cells stimulated cell growth. Exposure of HP100-1 cells to a catalase inhibitor resulted in suppression of cell growth with concomitant increased levels of intracellular H2O2. Moreover, exogenously added H2O2 or depletion of glutathione suppressed cell growth in HL60 cells. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was constitutively phosphorylated in HP100-1 cells but not in HL60 cells. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway suppressed the growth of HP100-1 cells, but inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) did not affect growth. Moreover, inhibition of catalase blocked the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but not of p38MAPK in HP100-1 cells. Thus our results suggest that catalase activates the growth of HL60 cells through dismutation of H2O2, leading to activation of the ERK1/2 pathway; H2O2 is an important regulator of growth in HL60 cells.
Nakamura, H., Fukami, H., Hayashi, Y., Tachibana, A., Nakatsugawa, S., Hamaguchi, M. and Ishizaki, K. Cytotoxic and Mutagenic Effects of Chronic Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation on TERT-Immortalized Human Cells. Radiat. Res. 163, 283– 288 (2005).
To analyze the genetic effects of low-dose-rate radiation on human cells, we used human telomere reverse transcriptase (TERT)-immortalized fibroblast cells obtained from normal individuals. We studied the effect of low-dose-rate (0.3 mGy/ min) and high-dose-rate (2 Gy/min) radiation on cells in a confluent state. Survival and micronucleus induction frequency showed higher resistance after irradiation at low dose rate than at high dose rate. The survival after 5 Gy of high-dose-rate radiation was 0.01 compared to 0.3 after low-dose-rate irradiation at the same dose. In accordance with this, the level of HPRT mutation induction by low-dose-rate radiation decreased to approximately one-eighth that for high-dose-rate radiation. We then characterized the mutants by multiplex PCR analysis, which showed that the fraction of deletion mutations was lower in the mutant cells induced at low dose rate than at high dose rate. Furthermore, the size of the deletions in mutant cells induced by low-dose-rate radiation appeared to be smaller than those in mutant cells irradiated at high dose rate. Only a few exons were deleted in the former mutants while all exons were deleted in most of the latter mutants. The present study indicates that the genetic effects of low-dose-rate radiation on nonproliferating normal human cells are quantitatively and qualitatively less severe than the effect of high-dose-rate radiation.
Dahle, J., Kaalhus, O., Stokke, T. and Kvam, E. Bystander Effects may Modulate Ultraviolet A and B Radiation-Induced Delayed Mutagenesis. Radiat. Res. 163, 289–295 (2005).
Ultraviolet irradiation of cells can induce a state of genomic instability that can persist for several cell generations after irradiation. However, questions regarding the time course of formation, relative abundance for different types of ultraviolet radiation, and mechanism of induction of delayed mutations remain to be answered. In this paper, we have tried to address these questions using the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation assay in V79 Chinese hamster cells irradiated with ultraviolet A or B radiation. Delayed HPRT− mutations, which are indications of genomic instability, were detected by incubating the cells in medium containing aminopterin, selectively killing HPRT− mutants, and then treating the cells with medium containing 6-thioguanine, which selectively killed non-mutant cells. Remarkably, the delayed mutation frequencies found here were much higher than reported previously using a cloning method. Cloning of cells immediately after irradiation prevents contact between individual cell clones. In contrast, with the present method, the cells are in contact and are mixed several times during the experiment. Thus the higher delayed mutation frequency measured by the present method may be explained by a bystander effect. This hypothesis is supported by an experiment with an inhibitor of gap junctional intercellular communication, which reduced the delayed mutation frequency. In conclusion, the results suggest that a bystander effect is involved in ultraviolet-radiation-induced genomic instability and that it may be mediated in part by gap junctional intercellular communication.
Darwiche, N., Bazzi, H., El-Touni, L., Abou-Lteif, G., Doueiri, R., Hatoum, A., Maalouf, S. and Gali-Muhtasib, H. Regulation of Ultraviolet B Radiation-Mediated Activation of AP1 Signaling by Retinoids in Primary Keratinocytes. Radiat. Res. 163, 296–306 (2005).
The main cause of skin cancer and photo-aging is chronic exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Such damage can be ameliorated by retinoid treatment. UVB-radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis is associated with the induction of activator protein 1 (AP1) signaling and factors, namely FOS and JUN family members. We investigated the effects of several retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid (tRA), 9-cis-retinoic acid (cRA), and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (HPR), on UVB-induced damage in primary mouse keratinocytes. In addition, the interplay between UVB radiation, retinoid receptors, and AP1 signaling was assessed using Western blot analysis and ribonuclease protection and gene reporter assays. Exposure of keratinocytes to UVB radiation caused a down-regulation of the retinoid receptor protein levels in a proteasome-mediated manner. In contrast, FOS and JUN proteins were transiently induced shortly after exposure to UVB radiation. Retinoid treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of retinoid receptor proteins. When irradiated cells were treated with retinoids, no significant effects on AP1 protein expression were noted. Interestingly, pretreatments with tRA and cRA, but not HPR, suppressed UVB-radiation-induced AP1 activity by more than 50%, whereas post-treatment failed to produce similar effects. Our findings indicate that the inhibition of AP1 activity by retinoids explains, at least in part, the chemopreventive potential of retinoids in UV-radiation-associated epidermal damage.
Szkanderová, S., Vávrová, J., Hernychová, L., Neubauerová, V., Lenc̆o, J. and Stulík, J. Proteome Alterations in Gamma-Irradiated Human T-Lymphocyte Leukemia Cells. Radiat. Res. 163, 307–315 (2005).
Analyses of the protein expression profiles of irradiated cells may be beneficial for identification of new biomolecules of radiation-induced cell damage. Therefore, in this study we exploited the proteomic approach to identify proteins whose expression is significantly altered in γ-irradiated human T-lymphocyte leukemia cells. MOLT-4 cells were irradiated with 7.5 Gy and the cell lysates were collected at different times after irradiation (2, 5 and 12 h). The proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and quantified using an image evaluation system. Proteins exhibiting significant radiation-induced alterations in abundance were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. We identified 14 proteins that were either up- or down-regulated. Cellular levels of four of the proteins (Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 and 2, Ran binding protein 1, serine/threonine protein kinase PAK2) were further analyzed by two-dimensional immunoblotting to confirm the data obtained from proteome analysis. All identified proteins were classified according to their cellular function, including their participation in biochemical and signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest the feasibility of the proteome method for monitoring of cellular radiation responses.
Nagar, S. and Morgan, W. F. The Death-Inducing Effect and Chromosomal Instability. Radiat. Res. 163, 316–323 (2005).
Exposure to ionizing radiation can induce a heritable change in the unirradiated progeny of irradiated cells. This non-targeted effect of ionizing radiation manifests as genomic instability, and although there is some debate as to the role of genomic instability in the carcinogenic process, it is thought by some to be an early step in radiation carcinogenesis. Although the mechanism of induction of genomic instability is not clearly understood, evidence suggests that secreted factors from irradiated cells may be involved. We have previously identified another non-targeted effect of ionizing radiation, the death-inducing effect. Exposure of unirradiated GM10115 cells to medium from chromosomally unstable clones was generally found to be cytotoxic. However, occasionally cells will survive in medium from unstable clones and can be clonally expanded. The absolute yield of survivors is independent of the initial number of cells plated when cell densities reached 5,000 or more cells/dish. After cytogenetic analysis of the surviving colonies, we found chromosomal instability in three of 40 clones analyzed, while some clones exhibited increased micronucleus frequency and HPRT mutation frequency. These data suggest that our chromosomally unstable GM10115 cells secrete factors that are cytotoxic to the majority of stable, parental cells but are also capable of inducing a heritable change in some of the survivors that can manifest as delayed genomic instability. These results suggest a mechanism whereby instability can be perpetuated through the influences of potentially cytotoxic factors produced by genomically unstable clones.
Nagar, S., Smith, L. E. and Morgan, W. F. Variation in Apoptosis Profiles in Radiation-Induced Genomically Unstable Cell Lines. Radiat. Res. 163, 324–331 (2005).
Delayed reproductive cell death or lethal mutations in the survivors of irradiated cells is a well-characterized end point associated with radiation-induced genomic instability. Although the mechanism for this delayed lethality has not been identified, it is thought to be a means of eliminating cells that have sustained extensive damage, thus preventing tissue disruption after radiation exposure. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that delayed reproductive cell death in chromosomally unstable GM10115 clones is due to persistently increased levels of apoptosis. Evidence for differences in apoptosis in two representative genomically unstable clones after irradiation is presented. In addition, one of the unstable clones was found to have abnormal levels of apoptosis after radiation exposure. An understanding of apoptosis in genomically unstable clones may provide insight into the maintenance of genomic instability and the mechanism by which genomically unstable cells evade cell death, potentially contributing to carcinogenesis.
Schettino, G., Folkard, M., Michael, B. D. and Prise, K. M. Low-Dose Binary Behavior of Bystander Cell Killing after Microbeam Irradiation of a Single Cell with Focused CK X Rays. Radiat. Res. 163, 332–336 (2005).
Although conclusive evidence has been obtained for the presence of radiation-induced bystander effects, the mechanisms that trigger and regulate these processes are still largely unknown. The bystander effect may play a critical role in determining the biological effectiveness of low-dose exposures, but questions on how to incorporate it into current models and extrapolate the risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis are still open. The Gray Cancer Institute soft X-ray microbeam has been used to investigate the dose–response relationship of the bystander effect below 0.5 Gy. The survival response of V79 cells was assessed after the irradiation of a single cell within a population with a submicrometer-size beam of carbon K X rays (278 eV). Above 0.3 Gy, the measured bystander cell killing was in agreement with previously published data; however, a significant increase in the scatter of the data was observed in the low-dose region (<0.3 Gy). The data distribution observed indicates a binary behavior for triggering of the bystander response. According to our hypothesis, the probability of triggering a bystander response increases approximately linearly with the dose delivered to the single selected cell, reaching 100% above about 0.3 Gy. The magnitude of the bystander effect, when triggered, is approximately constant with the dose and results in an overall ∼10% reduction in survival in our system. This suggests that the event that triggers the emission of the bystander signal by the hit cell is an all-or-nothing process. Extrapolation of the data indicates that when a single fast electron traverses a V79 cell, there is a probability of ∼0.3% that the cell will emit the bystander signal. The data presented in this paper have also been analyzed statistically to test the possibility that complex DNA double-strand breaks may be the initial critical event.
Miller, J. H., Zheng, F., Jin, S., Opresko, L. K., Wiley, H. S. and Resat, H. A Model of Cytokine Shedding Induced by Low Doses of Gamma Radiation. Radiat. Res. 163, 337– 342 (2005).
A model for sustained shedding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in response to low doses of gamma radiation was developed based on a time delay in the feedback from mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation to metalloprotease activity in an autocrine signaling process. We determined the kinetic parameters of our model using the data available for MAPK activation by γ irradiation in the 1–2-Gy dose range and then showed that predictions of the model were consistent with experimental results for the kinetics of EGF shedding into the growth medium after exposure of human mammary epithelial cells to 1–5 cGy of γ radiation in the presence of antibodies that block ligand binding to EGF receptors. The model allowed us to estimate the rate of radiation-induced cytokine release per cell from measurements of EGF concentration in the growth medium and to assess the effectiveness of EGF shedding and subsequent diffusion through the medium as a mechanism for signal transmission between hit cells and bystanders.
Gaillard, S., Armbruster, V., Hill, M. A., Gharbi, T. and Fromm, M. Production and Validation of CR-39-Based Dishes for α-Particle Radiobiological Experiments. Radiat. Res. 163, 343–350 (2005).
The study of radiobiological effects induced in vitro by low fluences of α particles would be significantly enhanced if the precise localization of each particle track in the cell monolayer was known. From this perspective, we developed a new method based on tailor-made UV-radiation-cured CR-39, the production of which is described. Its validation both as a petri dish and as solid-state nuclear track detectors is demonstrated. With respect to the demands on solid-state nuclear track detectors in such experiments, these biologically compatible detectors have a controlled micrometric thickness that allows them to be crossed by the α particles. In this study, we present a method for obtaining 10-μm-thick CR-39, its chemical characterization, and its properties as a solid-state nuclear track detector under the environmental conditions of radiobiological experiments. The experimental studies performed with 3.5 MeV α particles show that their transmitted energy is sufficient enough to cross the entire cellular volume. Under optimal conditions, etched tracks are clearly defined 2 h after etching. Moreover, the UV-radiation-cured CR-39 represents an essentially zero background that is due to the short time between the production and use of the polymer. Under a confocal microscope, this thin solid-state nuclear track detector allows the precise localization of the impact parameter at the subcellular level.
Chatterjee, S., Premachandran, S., Bagewadikar, R. S. and Poduval, T. B. The Use of ELISA to Monitor Amplified Hemolysis by the Combined Action of Osmotic Stress and Radiation: Potential Applications. Radiat. Res. 163, 351–355 (2005).
A new assay has been developed to study the osmotic fragility of red blood cells (RBCs) and the involvement of oxygen-derived free radicals and other oxidant species in causing human red blood cell hemolysis. The amount of hemoglobin released into the supernatant, which is a measure of human red blood cell hemolysis, is monitored using an ELISA reader. This ELISA-based osmotic fragility test compared well with the established osmotic fragility test, with the added advantage of significantly reduced time and the requirement of only 60 μl of blood. This small amount of blood was collected fresh by finger puncture and was immediately diluted 50 times with PBS, thus eliminating the use of anticoagulants and the subsequent washings. Since exposure of RBCs to 400 Gy γ radiation caused less than 5% hemolysis 24 h after irradiation, the RBC hemolysis induced by γ radiation was amplified by irradiating the cell in hypotonic saline. The method was validated by examining the protective effect of Trolox, an analog of vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH), a well-known radioprotector, against human RBC hemolysis caused by the combined action of radiation and osmotic stress. Trolox, a known membrane stabilizer and an antioxidant, and GSH offered significant protection. This new method, which is simple and requires significantly less time and fewer RBCs, may offer the ability to study the effects of antioxidants and membrane stabilizers on human red blood cell hemolysis induced by radiation and oxidative stress and assess the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes.