Oxynetra stangelandi Grishin & Burns, new species, from high elevations of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica, is most similar to Oxynetra hopfferi Staudinger, known from mountains of central and southern Costa Rica and western Panama. These hesperiid species differ mainly in body color pattern and in DNA barcodes. We compare their barcodes, nucleotide by nucleotide, together with barcodes of a congener and a species of the related genus Olafia, and use the barcode data to show phylogenetic relationships. We describe the new species, its discovery, its male and female genitalia, and its life history as a cloud forest herbivore of Prunus annularis (Rosaceae). In ACG, no other skippers feed on this plant species, and no other skippers of the tribe Pyrrhopygini feed on plants in the family Rosaceae. Various stages of O. stangelandi belong to mimicry complexes. Although our adults, which are reared from wild-caught caterpillars, are split between the sexes (4 males, 6 females), there are scarcely any females of Oxynetra in the world's museums.
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