During continuing studies on the tortricid fauna of the New World tropics, two species described in Polychrosis by Meyrick (1917) and subsequently transferred to Lobesia Guenée, 1845 by Clarke (1958) were determined to be assigned more appropriately to Eccopsis Zeller, 1852, as it is currently defined. Eccopsis eltundana Razowski & Wojtusiak, 2008, described from a single female from Ecuador, belongs in Megalota Diakonoff, 1966. The purpose of this note is to formally propose these three new combinations.
Eccopsis arenacea (Meyrick), new combination
Polychrosis arenacea Meyrick, 1917: 23.
Lobesia arenacea: Clarke 1958: 464; Powell et al. 1995: 152; Brown 2005: 407.
Polychrosis arenacea was described from Durán [province of Guayas], Ecuador, based on 23 specimens collected in June [probably 1914]. Clarke (1958) designated a lectotype and indicated that 10 of Meyrick's original specimens were missing from the collection of the British Museum of Natural History (BMNH; now The Natural History Museum, London). Clarke transferred the species to Lobesia, indicating it was a new combination, but gave no justification for the transfer. Powell et al. (1995) and Brown (2005) followed that assignment.
The forewing pattern of the lectotype of Polychrosis arenacea (illustrated by Clarke 1858: 464) is extremely similar to that of Eccopsis floreana Razowski & Landry, 2008 (Razowski et al. 2008: figs. 13, 14), described from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Meyrick (1917) indicated that arenacea “varies remarkably,” and the same is true of other Neotropical species of Eccopsis, including E. floreana. The male genitalia of arenacea are extremely similar to those of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008 (Razowski et al. 2008: fig. 43), with a few long spines from the apex of the uncus, digitate socii, and asymmetric valvae, in each species with a dense patch of long setae and a long, slender, rodlike process from the terminal part of the sacculus on the right valva. On the basis of its superficial and morphological similarity to these species of Eccopsis, arenacea is transferred to Eccopsis.
Eccopsis oxynochla (Meyrick), new combination
Polychrosis oxymochla Meyrick, 1917: 24.
Lobesia arenacea: Clarke 1958: 472; Powell et al. 1995: 152; Brown 2005: 408.
Polychrosis oxymochla was described from Lima, Peru, based on 28 specimens collected “8–14” [probably August 1914]. Clarke (1958) designated a lectotype and indicated that 16 of the original specimens were missing from the BMNH collection. He transferred the species to Lobesia, identifying it as new combination, but gave no justification for the action. Powell et al. (1995) and Brown (2005) followed that treatment without further comment.
The forewing pattern of the lectotype of Polychrosis oxymochla (illustrated by Clarke 1858: 472) is not particularly similar to that of other Neotropical species of Eccopsis, but Meyrick (1917) indicated that the species “varies considerably in distinctness of markings,” which is common among Neotropical Eccopsis, and some of the paratypes are similar in facies to other New World Eccopsis. The male genitalia of oxymochla are similar to those of Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, 2011 (Vargas 2011: fig. 2), with a patch of long spines from the apex of the uncus, digitate socii, and asymmetric valvae, each valva somewhat divided near the middle by an oblique line separating the baso-anterior portion of the valva from the cucullus. In Eccopsis razowskii, each valva bears a short rod-like process, much shorter than that of E. galapagana (the latter has the process only on the right valva); however, similar processes are not apparent in oxymochla. On the basis of the forewing variation and similarity in male genitalia to other species of Eccopsis, oxymochla is transferred to Eccopsis.
Megalota eltundana (Razowski & Wojtusiak),
Eccopsis eltundana Razowski & Wojtusiak, 2008: 23.
Eccopsis eltundana was described from a single female from Loja Province, Ecuador. In facies (Razowski & Wojtusiak 2008: fig. 85) it is dissimilar to other New World species of Eccopsis and extremely similar to New World species of Megalota (Brown 2009: figs. 1–24). The forewing pattern of the holotype of Eccopsis eltundana is similar to that of the holotype of Megalota macrosocia Brown, 2009, described from Pichincha Province, Ecuador, but the latter specimen is considerably more worn and the pattern elements are not clear. The female genitalia of Eccopsis eltundana has a small lobe immediately posterad of the ostium and a small signum comprised of a small cluster of short, blunt spines, both features of which are typical of many species in the submicans species-group of Megalota as defined by Brown (2009). On the basis of the facies and female genitalia, eltundana is transferred to Megalota.
Discussion. Eccopsis was proposed by Zeller, 1852, with E. wahlbergiana Zeller, 1852 (Type locality: South Africa) as the type species. Brown (2005) included 14 species in the genus, all from the Afrotropical region. Razowski & Wojtusiak (2008) described the first species of Eccopsis from the Neotropics (i.e., E. eltundana from the mountains of Ecuador), but that species is transferred to Megalota above. Razowski et al. (2008) followed with descriptions of two species of Eccopsis from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, and Vargas (2011) added another from Chile. Vargas (2011) and Gallego et al. (2012) provided information on the early stages of the New World species, which appear to be restricted to Fabaceae. The two new combinations proposed herein expand the known geographic distribution of Eccopsis in the New World to include Colombia, Ecuador (including the Galapagos Islands), Peru, and Chile— much of the western portion of South America.
Although New World species of Eccopsis (i.e., galapagana, floreana, razowskii, arenacea, and oxynochla) share many features with Old World members, they differ from Old World species in several characters. Afrotropical species of Eccopsis exhibit limited variation in facies (e.g., Aarvik 2004) in contrast to the highly variable forewing pattern of most Neotropical species. Males of Afrotropical species have a conspicuous “subbasal process of the valva” (sensu Brown 2009) which is lacking in New World species; and in most Afrotropical species the male genitalia are considerably more symmetrical compared to Neotropical species. Hence, it possible that Neotropical species currently assigned to Eccopsis require a new genus.
I thank Hector Vargas and an anonymous reviewer for comments on the brief manuscript.