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During a 10-year study, Salmonella spp. were isolated from 18 of 411 (4.4%) wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) examined in Florida, including five juvenile birds, one only 10 days old. Ten serotypes were found, with S. typhimurium being most frequently isolated. This is the first reported isolation of Salmonella spp. from the wild turkey.
Free ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were immobilized using a concentrated solution of 200 mg ketamine HCl and 200 mg xylazine HCl per ml. A mean dosage of 6.8 mg (n=21) of each drug/kg body weight was successful in immobilizing polar bears older than one year and 2.8 mg (n=6) of each drug/kg body weight was effective for cubs of the year (COY). Mean induction time for bears other than COY was 13.2 min. Mean induction time for COY was 2 min. Bears were tractable for a minimum of 30 min. Male and female polar bears responded similarly to the drugs. Immobilization was characterized by slow deep breathing, relaxed muscles, no excess salivation and no convulsions. The combination of ketamine HCl and xylazine HCl appears to be a useful alternative to drugs previously used for immobilizing polar bears.
Fentanyl was used to effectively produce neuroleptanalgesia in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) under field conditions when given intramuscularly at dosages of .05 to .11 mg/kg of body weight and in combination with azaperone at dosages of .11 to .45 mg/kg. Fentanyl at a dosage of .05 mg/kg, when combined with azaperone at a dosage of .20 mg/kg met most of the requirements for a safe, short acting, intramuscular immobilizing agent. The effects were readily reversible, there were no serious side effects and a wide safety margin.
Attempts to transfer sarcoptic mange from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), four coyotes (Canis latrans), and a wolf (Canis lupus) to dogs (Canis familiaris) and apparent coyote-dog hybrids were unsuccessful. One coyote died of sarcoptic mange of red fox origin and two coyotes died of sarcoptic mange of coyote origin. Four suspected (i.e., mites were not demonstrated) human cases, all transitory in nature, resulted from handling infested coyotes.
Tongue samples were collected from 51 hunter-killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in Arizona during 1978 and 1979. Trichinella sp. was detected in 3.9% of this sample. Counts of 132 and 406 trichinae indicated a potential health hazard to anyone consuming insufficiently-cooked bear meat.
Experiments were conducted to compare the relative pathogenicity and infectivity of deer- and cattle-derived Haemonchus contortus for three hosts, viz., white-tailed deer, cattle and domestic sheep. Parameters evaluated for all animals were: general physical condition, basic hematologic values, fecal egg counts and parasite infectivity rates. Clinical signs attributable to H. contortus infections were not observed in any of the experimental animals. Deer harboring H. contortus burdens > 70 worms/kg body weight had decreased packed cell volume, hemoglobin and total serum protein values. Statistical analyses indicated there was not a significant difference (P>.05) in infectivity of deer-derived H. contortus in these hosts. No significant difference (P>.05) in infectivity for deer was noted between deer-derived H. contortus and cattle-derived H. contortus. Morphometric comparisons of helminths recovered indicated that parasites of deer and cattle origin were both compatible with the description for H. contortus. Results suggest that cross-transmission of H. contortus occurs between deer and domestic livestock.
Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Free-ranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland consisted of Tyzzeria.
Intestinal contents from 12 scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), 10 bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), 20 harlequin quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae), 35 California quail (Lophortyx californicus), 15 Gambel's quail (Lophortyx gambelii), and 29 mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) were examined for coccidian oocysts. Only 18 (14.9%) of 121 birds had coccidian oocysts in their feces at the time of collection; these included 9 L. californicus and 9 O. pictus. Four eimerians and an isosporan were found in the 18 infected birds. Eimeria lophortygis and E. okanaganensis had been previously described from L. californicus, but were also seen in O. pictus. Eimeria crusti sp. n. and Eimeria oreortygis sp. n. are described from O. pictus; E. oreortygis was also found in L. californicus. Broadly ellipsoid oocysts of E. crusti had a rough outer wall, were 26.0 × 21.2 (24–28 × 20–23) μm, and contained ovoid sporocysts 15.7 × 7.5 (14–18 × 7–8) μm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a polar granule, sporocyst residuum, Stieda and substieda bodies were present. Slightly ovoid oocysts of E. oreortygis had a smooth outer wall, were 24.4 × 18.7 (21–28 × 17–23) μm, and contained ovoid sporocysts 14.1 × 7.2 (13–16 × 6–9) μm. Micropyle and polar granules were absent but a small oocyst residuum, large sporocyst residuum, Stieda and substieda bodies were present. Oocysts of an isosporan were found and compared to oocysts of Isospora lacazei isolated from sparrows in a previous study.
Psoroptic mites, thought to be Psoroptes ovis (Hering) and collected from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) in southern New Mexico, were transferred to domestic sheep, rabbits and cattle. These mites established infestations in the ears of 5 of 6 rabbits but failed to establish lasting infestations on sheep. Reproducing colonies of mites were established with difficulty on cattle (3 of 11). The studies indicate that these mites are not adapted to cattle or domestic sheep.
Musculature containing grossly visible cysts of Sarcocystis rileyi from northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). Skunks used were determined to be Sarcocystis free, the challenged skunk became infected and shed both sporulated oocysts and free sporocysts in the feces. The prepatent period was 15 days and the patent period 50 days. Oocysts were fully sporulated when shed and contained two sporocysts, free sporocysts averaged 9 × 13.5 μm (N=50). Each sporocyst contained four sporozoites and a granular residuum.
Muscle containing macroscopic cysts of Sarcocystis sp. from naturally infected wild shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to two captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The skunks passed sporocysts in their feces beginning 19 and 22 days post-infection, and continued to pass small numbers of sporocysts sporadically to 63 and 51 days post-infection, respectively. Sporocysts from the skunks were administered orally to four laboratory-reared shovelers. No cysts were found in ducks examined 56 and 84 days post-infection. One duck examined at 85 days post-infection had many microscopic cysts in its skeletal muscle. The remaining duck had numerous small macroscopic cysts in muscle at 154 days post-infection. A skunk fed muscle from this duck began to pass sporocysts on day 18 post-infection. All cysts in muscle (natural and experimental infection) had irregular cauliflower-like projections of the primary cyst wall.
Over a 12-month period, four white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were encountered in Michigan which had multiple cysts of the liver. No cystic lesions were present in other organs of the carcasses of three of the animals available for study. Light and electron microscopic observations on the lesions showed that they resembled a polycystic deformity of the biliary system, similar to that described previously in man. Polycystic liver must be differentiated from hepatic echinococcosis, which it resembles closely in gross appearance.
The presence of a typical and circumscribed squamous cell carcinoma located in the right carpus of a California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) is described. The prevalence of this carcinoma is discussed.
An oral melanoma was removed from a captive wallaby (Wallabia rufogrisea), housed at the main Mexico City Zoo. The cytopathology and histopathology of the tumor are described. Five months after surgery the tumor recurred but the animal has not shown any evidence of metastases.
Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige moult. During fall migration mallard drakes had elevated levels of glucose and uric acid. No significant changes were observed in total protein, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or creatine phosphokinase in pre- or post-moult periods. The hematological and biochemical values should prove useful in providing background information on mallard drakes, and documenting baseline data for intra and interspecies comparisons with diseased birds.
Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.
Infection by a herpesvirus producing cytomegalic disease in the prostate was demonstrated in the dasyurid marsupials, Phascogale tapoatafa and Antechinus stuartii. The prevalence of lesions among the latter was highest in mature animals during breeding, when the animals are known to be under stress, and in animals treated daily with high levels of exogenous corticosteroid. Occasional cytomegaly was observed in the kidneys of some A. stuartii and may represent a site of latent infection. Virus particles of herpes type were demonstrated by electron microscopy in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected prostatic cells. It is suggested that the infection may be venereal.
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the African form of malignant catarrhal fever (AMCF) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. The incubation period from AMCF in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. Clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivitis and swelling of the external lymph nodes. Histologic lesions were primarily characterized by widespread vasculitis and lymphadenopathy. The organs most severely affected were liver, lymphoid tissue, brain and lungs. Successful recovery and identification of AMCF virus was accomplished from one experimentally infected deer.
Blood samples were taken from humans and several species of free-ranging wild mammals from five different geographic areas of Alberta, Canada. Sera were tested for antibody to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, Powassan (POW) virus, the snowshoe hare (SSH) strain of the California group (CAL) of viruses, Northway (NOR) virus, Klamath (KLA) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, and two bacteria, Brucella abortus and Francisella tularensis. CAL antibody was found in 63% of 11 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), 33% of 167 black bears (Ursus americanus), and 19% of 55 humans (Homo sapiens). NOR antibody was found in 0.4% of 258 hares, 11% of 9 bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), 20% of 44 moose (Alces alces), 4% of 56 bears, 14% of 22 woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and 2% of 50 humans. IBR antibody was detected in 14% of 14 moose. B. abortus antibody was found in 1% of 283 bears. F. tularensis antibody was detected in 2% of 52 humans. These findings represent extension of: (1) the natural host range for IBR, CAL, and NOR; (2) the geographical distribution of NOR infection in North America; and (3) the geographical distribution of CAL infection within Alberta.
The characteristics of a Newcastle disease virus isolated from a parrot (Psittacus erythracus) in Nigeria were examined using standard laboratory tests. Minimum lethal dose in embryos was 10−10, mean death time 44.8 h. The intracerebral and intravenous pathologic indices were 1.65 and 2.42, respectively. The virus was resistant at pH 3 and pH 7.2 and the hemagglutinin was thermostable at 56 C for 120 min. Of 10 mammalian species of erythrocytes examined, those of equine and rat were not agglutinated. The isolate was typed as a velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus.
Virus neutralising antibodies to malignant catarrhal fever virus were demonstrated in the sera of 50 oryx (Oryx beisa callotis). The mean antibody titre in 42 adult oryx was 10.1.23 Two calves which were 2 weeks old had a mean titre of 101.54 but the level of circulating antibody had started to decline in 2 months old calves. The antibody titres continued to decline only to rise steeply in 9 months old calves. Despite the high prevalence of antibodies in oryx no virus was isolated from blood or nasal secretions inoculated into calf thyroid cell cultures or rabbits.
Three Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) were inoculated with a herpesvirus recovered from a captive Parma wallaby with fatal naturally-occurring disease. Two intravenously inoculated animals died after 5 days and one animal infected via the conjunctiva and nasal mucosa was killed when moribund at 7 days. An additional two wallabies held in contact with the others became infected; they were killed at 11 days, when one was severely affected and one was mildly affected. All had small vesicles and ulcers of the skin of the upper and lower lips, eyelids, anogenital area and adjacent genital mucosa. Small vesicles and ulcers and large ulcers, with adherent necrotic epithelium and inflammatory debris, were present on the mucosa of the upper lips and adjacent gums and the conjunctiva. Numerous large basophilic or eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the epithelial cells of these vesicles and ulcers and of adjacent hair follicles and sebaceous glands. There was a mild to moderately severe rhinitis. Keratitis was present in two wallabies. Liver lesions were present in two animals but were unlike those seen in herpesviral hepatitis in other species.
Three urine sampling techniques were employed in nutritional experiments with captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urethral catheterization permitted successful urine collection from females. Furosemide induced urination in male fawns 36.4 ±3.1 min (SE) after injection. Significant (P<0.05) variation in the responses of individual fawns to this drug were detected. Xylazine hydrochloride induced urination in adult males 91.8 ± 4.7 min after injection. Significant (P<0.01) differences in responses to this drug were detected among individual deer and sample months. The applicability of these urine sampling techniques is discussed.